Skip to main content

Full text of "Practical bricklaying: a handbook of instruction and manual for the journeyman"

See other formats


t/lfj /VD 



M i''ni ii ii i i i i i niitJip iiJ Ml i lIil li^^ 

HkQraw'Ml Bod (S ^e | 


Electrical Ubrld v Engineering News -Record 
Power V Engineering and Mining Journal -Press 
Chemical and Metallurgical Erigin earing 
Electric Railway Journal v Coal Age 
American Machinist ^ Ingenieria Intemacional 
Electrical Merchandising ^ BusTransportation 
Journal of Electricity and Western Industry 
Industrial Engineer * 






Director of Vocational Education, Cleveland Public Schools 

Revised and Enlarged 


Architect, The Common Brick Manufacturers Association of America 

First Edition 



LONDON: 6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C. 4 

Copyright, 1924, by the 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 




This book has no author. It is rather a compilation accom- 
plished through the cooperative efforts of many. The 
compiler desires at this time to express his appreciation to those 
who have made this book possible. 

Ralph P. Stoddard, secretary-manager of The Common 
Brick Manufacturers' Association of America, conceived the 
idea of preparing a practical textbook covering the bricklaying 
craft and it is due to his active efforts that its publication 
becomes a reality. William Carver, architect for the same 
association and author of "Brick — How to Build and Esti- 
mate" (freely quoted from in this book), has prepared illustra- 
tions, edited and revised the manuscript, written large por- 
tions of the subject matter, and in many other ways has been 
responsible for the preparation of the book in its present form. 
Andrew Pentland, a practical bricklayer and practicing 
contractor, has also been of inestimable assistance in correct- 
ing and completing the text covering the practical phases of 
the craft. 

D. Knickerbacker Boyd, F.A.I.A., President of the Phila- 
delphia Building Congress and vice-president of the American 
Construction Council, has placed upon the manuscript many 
detailed notes which have been included in the present 
edition. Thomas Preece, first vice-president of the Interna- 
tional Bricklayers' Union, has likewise carefully scrutinized the 
typed manuscript and has approved it in its present form. Dr. 
George E. Myers, head of the division of vocational education 
of the University of Michigan, has made many suggestions 
relative to the organization of the material contained in the 
book from the standpoint of the expert in vocational education. 
Robert A. Hart, instructor in the Bricklayers' Apprentice 
School of Cleveland, has assisted with valuable suggestions and 
criticisms. Those responsible for the production of the book 


are indebted to the members of the Apprenticeship Committee m 
of the Cleveland Bricklayers' School. This committee ^ 
includes Messrs. George Dautel, Chairman, W. R. Carroll, 
Otto Best, W. K. Bell, L. E. Hoffman, E. F. Gibbons, Thomas 
Bolton, Morris Foley, and William Strain. Mrs. Briggs, an 
experienced teacher, is responsible for the compilation of the 
history of the craft and has been of constant assistance through- 
out the writing of the manuscript. 

The W. Bingham Company of Cleveland generously 
furnished the illustrations of the tools used by bricklayers. 

To all of the above, together with the many bricklayers upon 
the wall who have contributed information towards the com- 
pilation of this work, this book is dedicated with the hope that 
the combined efforts of all may assist in developing the brick- 
layer of tomorrow who will have that knowledge fundamental 
to pride of job and thoroughness in craftsmanship. 

Howard L. Briggs. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 



Preface vu 


How TO Establish a School for Bricklayer Apprentices. By 

Ralph P. Stoddard 1 

The History of^Prickmaking and Bricklaying 9 



I. Brick ^^ 

II. Tile, Terr4 Cotta, and Other Products 22 

III. Mortar 26 

IV. Tools and Equipment ■ ■ ^* 

V. A— Bonds ^^ 

V. B — Skintled Brickwork '^^ 

VI. Rowlock Courses, Soldier Courses and Panels 90 

VII. Jointing ^^ 

VIII. Pointing • ^^ 


IX. Bricklaying 101 

X. Miscellaneous Construction Elements 121 

X. (Continued) The Ideal Wall 154 

XI. Fireplaces 1^9 

XII. Arches and Lintels 1^^ 

XIII. Efflorescence . • 1^9 


XIV. To THE Instructor of Apprentices 191 

Trade Problems ^^^ 


XV. Trade Tests 207 










JAMES F. FOX,*«c«t.. headquarters 


RTERS / / 


January a, 1924 

Itr, William Carver, Architect, 
2121 Discount Building, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

Jly Dear Mr, Carrer: 

I hope you will overlook the delaj of iny going 
over the manuBcrlpt of the text took. However, I got down to 
business this Treek and I have read over the manuscript TJith 
much interest end pleasure and I have no fault to find with it or 
criticism to make, as you will realize that I have examined the 
manuscript from the Btan<^oint of a practical bricklayer and 
not from the architect or construction engineer's standpoint, 
I want to commend you gentlemen on the way in which the text 
book is written. It la written in the language of the mechanic. 
The title, names and phrases of the various materials, tools, 
and methods of using them are such that can be undtirstood by 
every man familiar with the business, and as a bricklayer, I 
think of nothing that I can add to it that will improve it at 
all, but to the contrary, I feel if I meddled with it at all, 
I should only injure the work already done. 

I have read three or four text books on Bricklaying 
and brick construction, seme eotten up in this country and some 
in England, and I believe you have come closer to the subject 
and to the true meaning of the art of bricklaying tham any of 
the others I have read. 1 feel confident this text book when 
printed will immediately get a wide circulation. As for myself 
I shall be glad to speak of It and commend it not only to our 
apprentices, but alto t« our journeymen, end I am pleased to 
endorse it as being the most useful book of information and In- 
struction to put into the hands of both our apprentices and 
membership generally, 

v/ith best wishes for a successful year, 1 reinain 

Very truly yours. 

First Vice-Preaident. 





By Ralph P. Stoddard 

The abnormally great demand for all kinds of construction 
work immediately after the Great War brought to light a 
serious fault in the great building industry — that there was no 
definite system of obtaining workers and training them to 
become skilled craftsmen. And yet "the whole industry of 
building construction is dependent upon its skilled men. 

When it is considered that in the erection of even a small 
residence upwards of a dozen skilled trades are employed, and 
that to become a craftsmen in any one of these trades a long 
apprenticeship period is necessary, it is strange that the con- 
struction industry as a whole had not previously formulated 
and put into practice some comprehensive plan to supply and 
train a requisite proportion of the youth of the country as 
building craftsmen to replace those who drop out. There have 
been, of course, apprenticeship agreements between employers' 
and employees' organizations, but these agreements were very 
far from being positive schemes to insure that the demands of 
the present or future would be taken care of. 

The Shortage of Craftsmen.— When the shortage of crafts- 
men began seriously to handicap building operations, various 
elements in the industry began to blame each other for the 
dilemma. It has been increasingly apparent, however, that the 
only way to meet the situation is to give constructive thought 
to the establishment of a system which will supply a sufficient 
number of journeymen to fill the ranks of those crafts which 
require thorough apprentice training. 

The initiative in this movement to provide skilled men for 
construction has in a number of cases come from building 




material producers, and it is natural that the trade association 
representing the manufacturers of building brick should have 
taken an active part in helping to build a practical system 
to provide thorough training for an adequate number of 
bricklayers to utilize the product of its industry. 

The Cleveland School.— The inspiration for the national 
effort thus inaugurated by The Common Brick Manufacturers' 
Association of America was the success of the Cleveland 
Bricklayer Apprenticeship School. The Cleveland Mason 
Contractors' Association, affihated with the Cleveland Build- 

FiQ. 1.— Bricklayer Apprentice Class. Salt Lake City. 

ing Trades Employers' Association and headed by George 
Dautel, its president, and Local No. 5 of Ohio of 'the B. M. and 
P. I. U., were together among the first to recognize the need and 
to set about devising a practical way to meet it . The Cleveland 
school was so successfully planned and conducted that it 
became a model; and the system of training which has now 
been adopted in many other cities is often referred to as the 
Cleveland system. 

In June, 1923, The Common Brick Manufacturers' Associa- 
tion invited representatives of various organizations interested 


in the subject to meet in Cleveland for a visit to the school 
conducted there, and to devise ways in which to make this 
effort nation-wide. Various clay products associations, 
employers' associations (both local and national), national and 
local officers of the bricklayers' union, prominent architects, 
representatives of public school systems and of trade schools 
and of the Federal and State boards for vocational education 
attended the conference. At the close of its session, the 
following conclusions were reached: 

Fig. 2.— Bricklayer Apprentice Class, Connecticut State Trade School. 

1. That nothing .the conference might do could immediately 
relieve the emergency caused by the shortage of bricklayers 
prevalent at the time in certain large building centers. 

2. That the conference should concern itself with the 
establishing of a permanent national plan for the development 
of craftsmen in bricklaying. 

3. That the most successful apprenticeship training is 
attained in schools conducted by boards of education with 
full cooperation of national and local employers' and 
employees' organizations, the pupils being apprentices 
regularly indentured to mason contractors, who are allowed 


by their employers to spend some portion of their time 
(usually half a day per week) at the school, the employers 
paying them the usual hourly wage for the time so spent at the 

4. That there is a place for the trade schools or other 
independent schools in the training of bricklayers. 

5. That the bricklayer's union will accept any form of 
apprenticeship training which has the approval of the local 
joint arbitration boards, and that when bricklayers are in 
demand every man claiming to be a bricklayer is given an 
opportunity to demonstrate his ability on the job, and that such 
men will be admitted to the union if they prove to be skilled 
craftsmen capable of giving satisfaction to the employer. 

6. That there is great value in human contact between 
the various elements in any construction operation, such ele- 
ments including the craftsman, the contractor, the architect, 
and the engineer; and that it is well worth while to develop 
this human contact with the journeyman craftsman as well as 
with the apprentice. 

As a development of these conclusions, it was proposed, 
first, that a complete textbook for the apprentice bricklayer 
should be prepared and published; second, that a national 
director of bricklaying apprenticeship schools should be 
engaged. The publication of this book is the carrying out of 
the first of these proposals. 

It is the desire of the Cleveland Apprenticeship Committee, 
of the compilers of this book, and of The Common Brick 
Manufacturers' Association to aid as far as possible other 
communities in need of additional bricklayers, desiring to 
establish and carry on successfully a school fashioned after 
the Cleveland or a similar plan. 

Federal Aid. — Under the provisions of the Smith-Hughes 
Act (the Federal Vocational Education Law) funds from the 
Federal treasury are available for promoting trade and 
industrial education. Parts of this fund are pro-rated to 
the states of the Union through the state boards for 
vocational education, for the purpose of maintaining all-day 
trade preparatory schools, part-time trade extension schools, 


and evening trade extension schools. Approximately one- 
third of the funds available under the Smith-Hughes Act may 
be used only for part-time schools. This is the type of school 
promoted so successfully in Cleveland and the type recom- 
mended. The dispensing of the funds under the Smith-Hughes 
Act is controlled by the Federal board for vocational education, 
working through the state and city boards. Another branch 
of the Smith-Hughes fund niay be used for the training of 
trade teacherB, and this Federal aid also was employed in the 
Cleveland school. 

DetaiUng in order the steps which should be taken in the 
establishing of an apprenticeship school, the first step should be 
a survey of local conditions, to det-ermine whether there is 
actual need for a greater number of bricklayers in the com- 
munity. In this connection it should be considered that at 
the peak of construction some shortage of craftsmen is inevi- 
table. If there were skilled men enough to meet the demands 
at the most active period of the building season, then there 
would be unemployment at other seasons of the year. 
Whether or not more apprentices are needed, those who have 
already indentured themselves to employers should be afforded 
an opportunity for the thorough training which only a school 
can provide. 

Next, a meeting should be called of the mason contractors' 
organization or other organizations of employers, of the repre- 
sentatives of the employees' organization, if one exists, and of 
a representative of the local board of education (usually the 
director of vocational education). The three elements in this 
meeting should be agreed that a bricklayer apprenticeship 
school is needed, and that each of the three interests will cooper- 
ate in establishing and conducting such a school. The board 
of education must first agree to estabUsh such a school or 
schools in the city, providing supervision and instruction with 
the aid of Smith-Hughes funds and a suitable classroom. 
Employers through their association must recognize their 
responsibiUty to employ steadily to the fullest of their ability 
the boys enroUing for apprenticeship instruction. The brick- 
layers' organization must agree to give its cooperation to the 


school and should indenture each boy to a contractor for the 
full period of his training. 

As a third step, the local board of education must apply to 
the State board for vocational education for partial reimburse- 
ment for the salary of the instructor, by the State and Federal 
boards under the Smith-Hughes Act. This application should 
be made early in June in order that the State board for voca- 
tional education may appropriate funds in its budget for the 
coming year and secure the approval of the Federal board for 
the particular appropriation in question. In most communi- 
ties the local school boards budget their expenditures annually 
and it is equally important that funds be set aside at a suffi- 
ciently early date to meet the local board's portion of the salary 
of the instructor and for the overhead costs in operating the 

With these three moves consummated, a school may be 
established. The boys enrolled for instruction will work the full 
number of hours per week on the job, under the contractor to 
whom they are indentured. At least four hours each week will 
be spent in the schoolroom under the instructor. The boys 
are paid for the full week by their employers. The boys will 
receive the regular scale of apprenticeship wages, which, in 
Cleveland, is at present as follows: For the first six months, 32 
per cent of the journeyman's wages; second six months, 36 
per cent; third six months, 42 per cent; fourth six months, 
48 per cent; fifth six months, 52 per cent; sixth six months, 
62 per cent; seventh six months, 70 per cent; and eighth six 
months 80 per cent. The 4-hr. period in the school may be 
divided into periods covering both bricklaying practice and 
related subjects, including blueprint reading, trade estimating, 
materials, etc. 

The teacher, unless he has previously had such training, 
should enroll in a teacher training class conducted under the 
direction of the State and Federal boards for vocational 
education. The instructor should be a practical bricklayer 
and care should be exercised in selecting a man who not only 
knows how to do the work but who also knows how to get 
along with boys and how to teach. 



The Coordinator. — One very necessary matter is to devise 
some system to keep a constant check on the apprentices to 
see that they put in their full time on the job and at the school. 
The Cleveland committee has found it well worth while to 
employ an apprentice coordinator who puts in all of his time 
on this work, and whose salary is paid by the employers' 
association. Naturally this would not be feasible for smaller 
schools (the Cleveland school having a total of about 200 
apprentices), but some continuous and positive check is nec- 
essary. When a boy fails to appear at the job or at school, 
his home is visited the same day and if a satisfactory excuse is 
not forthconring, the boy must appear before the apprentice- 
ship committee (which meets once every week for this purpose) 
for questioning and disciplinary measures, if necessary. This 
system has been found successful and has cut down non- 
excusable absences almost to zero. 

When the school is established, it is well to draw in as a 
cooperating unit the brick manufacturers and the material 
dealers who are interested in furthering brickwork. This 
fourth unit should give cooperation in supplying materials for 
use of the classes, and invariably the brick manufacturers have 
been found willing to donate the brick necessary for this pur- 
pose, while building supply dealers have donated mortar 
materials which are equally necessary for the work. It is 
recommended that the local architects also be made famiUar 
with the work of the school, and that representatives of this 
profession be invited from time to time to visit the school and 
talk to the students, or that special evening meetings be 
arranged at which architects may give talks to the boys on plan 
reading, especially with a view of coordinating their work with 
the work of other trades as expressed on the blueprints. It 
is further recommended that the class of apprentices at least 
once during the period of their training should visit a brick 
plant, and witness each step in the process of manufacturing 

Attention is called to point 4 under the conclusions adopted 
at the Cleveland conference referred to above, which is as 
follows: "That there is a place in the training of bricklayers 



for the trade school or other independent schools." Closely 
related to this is point 5, which resulted from statements 
made by authorized representatives of the International 
Bricklayers' Union, to the effect that the bricklayers' organi- 
zation will accept any form of apprenticeship training which 
has the approval of the local joint arbitration boards, and that 
when bricklayers are in demand every man claiming to be a 
bricklayer is given an opportunity to demonstrate his ability 
on the job, and that such men will be admitted to the Union 
if they prove to be skillful craftsmen capable of giving satis- 
faction to the employer. 


^^^^%^'''' ^^^^H^^^^^|^^^HH|^H 

liiw J 





Fig. 3. — Making brick in Egypt. 

It is not the purpose here to discourage trade schools or 
other types of schools which are successfully producing skilled 
craftsmen, even though the school is not conducted on the 
Cleveland plan. The local board of education is an agency 
available in every community, however, and the type of school 
which has the cooperation of the board of education, the 
employers, and the employees, is the one most heartily 



The art of brickmaking has been practiced by all of the 
civilized nations of ancient times. The first brick of which 
we have any knowledge were composed of mud and straw 
and were dried in the sun. Sun-dried brick made by the 
Babylonians and the Egyptians some 4^000 years ago still 
exist in a perfect state of preservation. Egyptian tombs, 
dating back at least 6,000 years, are found to have been made 
of these crude brick. In a later period, according to tradition, 
brickmaking was the chief occupation of the Israelites during 
their bondage in Egypt. Mud from the banks of the Nile 
River, chopped straw or reeds, which acted as a binding material, 
and water in fixed proportions were thrown into a shallow pit. 
The mass was tramped upon until' it was thoroughly kneaded 
and of the right degree of firmness. The mixture was then ' 
removed from'the pit, shaped into brick, in molds or by hand, 
and dried in the sun. 

At length it was discovered that in order to make brick 
capable of resisting extreme or continued dampness, more 
drying than that accomplished by the sun was necessary. 
The earliest fire-burned brick known are those found on the 
situations of the ancient cities of Babylonia and it seems likely 
that the art of burning blocks of clay to make permanent brick 
was discovered in this part of Asia. Egypt possessed stone 
quarries, a permanent source of building material. Babylonia, 
however, having neither stone nor wood was forced at an early 
date to make her own stable material for construction purposes. 
The high state of civilization reached by ancient Babylonia 
is still being revealed to us by the ruins of its great walls, 
towers, and palaces, all of which were made of brick. Often 
one of the flat surfaces of a brick was stamped with the name 
of the reigning king and, in building, this side of the brick was 
laid downward, being thus preserved, and giving us a depend- 
able means of determining the dates of these ancient temples. 
The Babylonians and the Assyrians developed the art of 
brickmaking to a high degree, notably in the making of glazed 
or enameled brick, which they used for decorative purposes. 



Less ancient but hardly less crude than the bricks made in 
Egypt and Babylonia are the '^ adobe" bricks found in Yucatan 
and in Mexico. Even in our own Southwest, in Texas, Arizonaj 
New Mexico, and California, hundreds of these crude brick, 
or adobe, houses still exist, many of them having been in use 
almost constantly for 300 years. 

The Greeks, having had a natural supply of stone and wood, 
found less use for brick than did the Babylonians and the 
Assyrians. It is certain, nevertheless, that crude brick 

Fig. 4. — Brickmaking in India. 

together with wood were in general use as construction material 
both for simple structures and for palaces before 1000 B.C. 
The Greeks used brick in the construction of the walls of many 
of their cities, because of its great strength in withstanding the 
shock of military attacks. Although the remains of Grecian 
brickwork are not as extensive as those left by the Romans, 
we have evidence that the Greeks were comparatively large 
users of brick. 

The Romans, about the beginning of the Christian era, hav- 
ing the knowledge of the Babylonians, Assyrians, and Egyp- 





tians upon which to draw, restored to use and extended the 
manufacture of brick, taking great care in the choice and 
preparation of clay and employing the process of burning 
brick in kilns. 

Fig. 6. — Long stretches of the Great Wall of China are of brick. 

It was through the Romans that brickmaking was intro- 
duced into Britain nearly 2,000 years ago. The art was 
apparently lost, however, when the Romans withdrew from 
the country, and it was not restored to activity again until 


about the thirteenth century. It was not until the fifteenth 
century that brick came into general use again, and in the 
reconstructing of London after the fire of 1666 brick were 
largely used. From that time until the present day, except 
in localities where building stone is more plentiful than good 
clay, brick have been used almost exclusively in all ordinary 
buildings throughout this country. At the present time some 
cities are classified as ''brick cities'' by insurance companies, 
who extend to them especially favorable insurance ratings. 

Virginia seems to have been the first American colony in 
which brick were made. Here they were being made in 1611 
and in Massachusetts in 1629. The first brick buildings in 
America were erected on Manhattan Island in 1633 by a 
Dutch governor. The brick used in these buildings were made 
in England and in Holland, both of whom furnished America 
with most of her brick for building purposes for many years. 
In the Colonies, burned brick were made first in 1650 at the 
New Haven Colony in what is now the state of Connecticut, 
and from there its manufacture gradually spread throughout 
the New England States. Brick was not manufactured in 
any great quantities, however, until after the American 

Excellent work had been done with brick in New England, 
Pennsylvania, and the South during the Colonial period; but 
until about 1880, brick were generally employed solely for 
ordinary construction, for backing walls and for residences and 
schools. About the last two decades of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, a revival of brick architecture began and an uncommon 
development in the manufacture and use of brick and terra 
cotta followed. Today, the United States employs a wider 
variety of types and colors of brick than any other country 
and no country has a more complete understanding of how to 
use this material to best advantage, both practically and 




1. Definition. — A brick is a solid building unit of burned 
clay. The temperature of the kiln in which brick are burned 
is at least 2,000° F. and the brick are exposed to this tempera- 
ture for several days. 

2. Size. — A brick is approximately 8 in. long, 3% in. wide, 
and 2}i in. deep. These dimensions have been adopted 
as standard dmensions by the American Society for Testing 
Materials, The Common Brick Manufacturers' Association 
of America, and The American Face Brick Association. 
Another size for smooth-face' brick (approximately 8 by ^% 
by 2}i in.) was adopted at a meeting recently called by the 
Simplification Division of the United States Department 
of Commerce. About 90 per cent of all brick now manufac- 
tured are of standard size, and this percentage is constantly 
increasing. The width of two brick, together with a mortar 
joint, will equal the length of one brick. 

B- y 


I Fig. 7. — Approximate standard dimensions of brick, and names of various 


3. Names of Brick Surfaces. — Due to a lack of definite 
terminology in the trade, relative to the names of the surfaces 



of a brick, it has been decided by a committee of The Common 
Brick Manufacturers' Association to designate the various 
surfaces by the names of side, face, cull, bed, and end, as 
shown in Fig. 7. 

4. Common Brick.— Common brick is brick with a natural 

5. Face Brick. — Face brick has its exposed surfaces rough- 
ened or otherwise treated to produce special effects in texture 
or color. In many sections of the country brick for facing 
purposes are customarily selected from the harder burned 
common brick delivered to the job, or these are marketed in 
special selections by the manufacturers. 

6. Pressed and Re-pressed Brick.— Pressed brick are made 
by two methods. Dry pressed brick are made by placing dry 
clay in molds under great pressure. The brick are then 
removed from the molds, placed in the kiln, and burned. 
Re-pressed brick are first pressed into molds a little larger than 
the brick will be when finished. After drying, they are 
pressed into smaller molds under very great pressure. Brick 
of this type are smooth upon all faces, usually accurate in 
measurement and edge. Due to their even surfaces, they may 
be laid with a very close joint. Both common and face brick 
are made by this process. 

7. Soft Mud Molded Brick (Sand Molded and Water- 
struck). — Soft mud brick are molded by two methods. In the 
first method the clay is pressed into the molds after being mixed 
with water. The molds are then leveled off at the top. The 
mold is sanded before the clay is pressed into it in order that 
the brick may be drawn without sticking. These are called 
sand mold brick. If the mold is wet instead of sanded so that 
the brick may be drawn, they are called water-struck brick. 

8. Stiff Mud Wire-cut Brick (End-cut and Side-cut).— 
Stiff mud brick are made from stiff clay which is forced through 
a die either of the width and length of the brick or of the width 
and thickness of the brick. The clay comes out in the form 
of a bar which is cut by wire cutters into bricks of uniform size. 
If the die is of the width and length of the brick, the wires cut 
the brick to the right thickness and they are called side-cut 



brick. If the die is of the width and thickness of the brick, 
the wires cut them into end-cut brick. 

9. Enameled Brick.— Enameled brick are face brick so 
treated that they have a glaze fused into the surface. They are 
produced in various colors and are easily cleaned. They are 
used for sanitary and decorative purposes. The standard 
size is 8 by 3% by 2% in. 

Fig. 8. — (Upper) Stiff mud side-cut brick. (Lower) Dry pressed brick. 

10. Fire Brick. — Fire brick are made of a special clay called 
fire clay, and will withstand extreme heat. They are heavier 
and usually larger than common brick and are made for such 
uses as linings for furnaces. Silica brick are employed where 
resistance to strong acid gases and high temperatures are the 
requirements, the surface of the brick fusing and forming an 
impermeable face. Silica brick should not be used, however, 
where there is much fluctuation of temperature, as this tends to 



Fig. 9.— (Upper) End-cut stiff mud brick. (Lower) Soft mud brick. 

Fig. 10. — Plain wire-cut paving brick. 



disrupt the brickwork. Where the furnace temperatures are 
alternately very hot and comparatively cool, fire brick should 
be used. The standard size for fire brick and silica brick is 
9 by 4M by 2^ in. 

11. Paving Brick.— Paving brick are hard-burned and 
impervious. They are used where wear-resisting qualities 
are required for roads, walks, etc. Second quality pavers 
are sometimes used for building construction. They are 
larger than building brick, the four standard sizes being 3 
by 4 by 8K, 3M by 4 by 8^, 3 by 3^ by 8K, and 4 by 3^ 
by 8K in. 

12. Impervious Brick. — Any brick that is very dense in 
structure and will absorb little water, such as paving or hard- 
burned shale brick, is called impervtous brick. 


Ulustrating the use of "bullnose" brick in a plinth. 

13. Special Brick." — Special brick are made for particular 
purposes including decorative and unusual shapes such as for 
molded courses, arches, corners, chimneys, etc. 

14. Porous Brick. — A very porous brick has recently been 
placed upon the market to be used for fireproofing steel struc- 
tural shapes or for non-bearing partitions. In their manu- 
facture, sawdust is mixed with the clay and burned out when 
the brick is fired. This makes a brick of very light weight and 
into which nails may be driven. 

15. Selection of Brick. — Care in selecting the proper brick 
for each job will greatly influence the strength, appearance, 


and cost of the finished work. Some of the brick in the kiln 
will always be fired more than others, causing a slight varia- 
tion in dimensions. In many cases, some will come out hard- 
burned and others will come out underburned, or soft. Due to 
their color in red-burning sections of the country, soft-burned 
brick are sometimes called '^salmon" brick. In selecting 
brick for facing the wall where they will be exposed to the 
chemical and physical action of rain and temperature, or for 
piers, walls, foundations subjected to heavy loads or dampness, 
or sewers, the hardest burned brick should be chosen. For 
backing up the inside of the wall and for "party and division 
walls, the softer brick, if of a good quality, are satisfactory and 
are usually cheaper. When using only common brick upon a 
job, the manufacturer will sometimes deliver the hard-burned 
brick in separate loads. In some places the brick must be 
sorted upon the job, selecting the hard-burned brick for facing 
and making a separate pile of it. In many cases, the brick- 
layer takes the brick as it comes, but he should always lay the 
hardest brick to the weather. Architects will frequently 
specify that brick with the most ''fire flash" be exposed on the 
face of the wall due to their artistic appearance as well as their 

16. The names of the different classes of brick vary in 
various parts of the country and the bricklayer should learn 
the terms used where he is working. 

17. The color and the texture of brick are a matter of 
selection. In work requiring special effects, face brick are 
sometimes selected for facing the wall. The mortar joint 
and the bond determine the character and appearance of the 
wall. Sample panels are frequently laid to enable the architect, 
owner, or builder to select a desired combination of brick, 
bond, and mortar. 

18. As clays vary in given localities, the bricklayer will find 
wide disagreement in the brick in different sections of the 
country. Experience in each case is the only true method of 
determining the nature of the brick, as the color and texture 
.are affected by the chemical and physical composition of the 
different clays to a marked extent and do not of necessity 


indicate the nature of the brick itself. The best brick should 
not contain stones and should be reasonably free from lami- 
nations and cracks. The brick should be rough enough for 
mortar to stick to and neither too porous nor too impervious. 
Well-burned brick will give a clear ringing sound when clapped 
together and, if soft, will give a dull thump. 


1. Definition. — Tile and terra cotta are manufactured 
from the same type of raw material as brick and made by 
similar processes. 

2. Hollow Tile. — Hollow tile, as the name implies, are 
hollow building units of burned clay constructed with a 
hollow core. They are used for partitions, furring, and, in 
cases where the load and their bearing capacity has been 
figured by a competent architect or structural engineer, for 
outside walls either faced with stucco or with brick tied to the 
tile by headers. 

3. Hollow tile fireproofing for protecting structural steel 
columns or other similar structural menbers is commonly 

Fig. 12.^ — ^Hollow tile protection on steel beam. 

used. When the hollow tile is made from semi-fire clay, and 
the whole either tied with one No. 12 B. & S. gage wire tie 
placed tightly around each course, or by a strip of woven wire 
of %-in. mesh placed in each horizontal joint, the hollow-tile 
column covering is given a fire resistance period of one hour. 




Hollow tile made from shale or surface clay should always be 
set 1 in. away from steel flanges and edges and filled solid 
with concrete between tile and column webs when used for 
this purpose, in addition to being tied with wire or mesh as 
before described. Unfilled tile of the latter kind is unsuitable 
for column protection; it readily cracks and spalls after a short 
fire exposure.^ 

4. Hollow Tile for Fireproof Floors. — Special hollow tile are 
made for fireproof systems. These tile are designed to span 
between I beams, and form either flat arches or segmental 

Fig. 13. — Standard flat arch combination. Side and end construction. 

arches. Flat tile arches are adapted for spans from 3 to 10 ft. 
They are of either end or side construction. In flat arches of 
end construction the webs run at right angles to the sup- 
ports. In flat arches of side construction the webs are parallel 
with the supports. -An arch of combination end and side arch 
construction is here illustrated, and is considered the most 
desirable type (see Fig. 13). 

5, Hollow tile 3 and 4 in. thick are made scored so they 
can split in half longitudinally and used as furring (see 
Fig. 14). 

^ The student who desires fuller information on this subject should send 
$2 for a copy of ''Fire Tests of Building Columns," to The Underwriters' 
Laboratories, 207 E. Ohio Street, Chicago, 111., which describes the 
results of fire tests made over a period of eight years by the U. S. Bureau 
of Standards, the Underwriters' Laboratories, and the Associated 
Factory Mutual Fire Insurance Companies. 



6. Floor and Wall Tile.— Tile of a finer grade of clay are 
manufactured in various forms, sizes, shapes, finishes, and 
colors for surfacing walls and floors. They are durable, 
sanitary, and waterproof, and there is a large and attractive 
variety of effects which they may be laid to produce. Tile 
are also used singly or in panels as inserts to enrich the appear- 
ance of brickwork. The bricklayer will probably be called 
upon— and then only occasionally — to lay only the few types 
of tile mentioned here, inasmuch as tile setting is a separate 

7. Corrugated Paving Tile.— Corrugated paving tile are 
semi-vitreous, unglazed, dust-pressed paving tile ^Ke in. 
thick and 6 in. square with a corrugated face. 

Before separation 
Fig. 14.- 

After separation 
-Split furring tile. 

8. Rough, Red, Paving Tile. — Rough, red, paving tile are 
semi-vitreous, unglazed, dust-pressed tiles }i in.Jthick (except 
9- by 9-in. tile which are % in. thick) in sizes 9 by 9, 9 by 4:}i, 
6 by 6 and 6 by 3 in. 

9. Quarry, or Promenade, Tile. — Quarry, or promenade, 
tile is a term for machine-made unglazed tiles % in. or more 
in thickness made from common clays. They are laid with 
a standard joint }i in. wide. 

10. Roofing Tile. — Other types of tile are manufactured for 
roofing, being made in various shapes and colors from clay or 
shale. Burned-clay roofing tile are durable, fireproof, 
weatherproof, and artistic. They are brittle and must be 
fastened firmly so that they will not work loose in the wind 
and crack. 


11. Ornamental Terra Cotta. — Ornamental terra cotta is 
made of burned clay of selected quality. While some standard 
sections are carried in stock, terra cotta is usually detailed 
and made specially for every job. It is used as a wall facing, 
for window sills, lintels, cornices, copings, etc. Terra cotta 
can be finished in any color or combination of colors and glazed 
to give any efifect desired. 

12. Terra cotta is manufactured as a shell about 1 in. in 
thickness (depending on the size of the piece) which is rein- 
forced with webs. When placed in a brick wall, the spaces 
between the webs must be filled with brickwork, so that the 
proper thickness of wall and the proper wall line is maintained, 
and the terra cotta webs projecting into the brickwork firmly 
bond the terra cotta and brick together. 

13. Concrete Blocks.-^ — Concrete blocks are molded build- 
ing units, made either solid or hollow of Portland cement and 
sand, and the bricklayer is sometimes called upon to lay them. 
They should be laid in cement mortar. 


1. Definition. — Mortar is a mixture of lime, sand, and water; 
or of lime, sand, cement, and water; or of cement, sand, and 
water. Cement is most usually Portland cement. There 
is a variety of patent *' brick mortars'' on the market, the 
chief ingredient of which is generally natural cement or 
hydraulic lime. 

2. Uses. — Mortar in horizontal joints provides an even bed 
for the courses above, and in all joints serves to unite the 
brickwork* into one mass by its adhesive properties, and 
prevents the penetration of wind and weather between the 
brick units. It has an important bearing in the appearance 
of the completed wall, the mortar joint forming a large part 
of its area. The decorative effects of the various bonds are 
emphasized by the interlacing pattern of mortar joints between 
the brick units. 

3. Selection. — The kind selected will depend upon several 
items. We must realize that the pay of the bricklayer forms 
a considerable part of the cost of masonry construction. It 
is therefore desirable to have a mortar easy to work with the 
trowel. We must consider the cost of the mortar, the weather 
conditions which it will be subjected to, and the load it must 

4. Setting.— Mortar is mixed by laborers, but the bricklayer 
should know how to proportion and mix it. The impor- 
tance of selecting competent mortar mixers cannot be over- 
emphasized. Good bricklaying depends upon good mortar. 
The lime or the cement, when it hardens or sets, binds the 
mortar together and to the masonry units with which it is in 
contact. The sand gives it body. There should be just 
enough lime or cement to fill all the spaces or voids between 



the grains of sand in order that the mortar may have maximum 
strength. Setting of cement mortar is caused by the combin- 
ing of the water with the cement^ forming crystals which inter- 
lock and bind the whole together. If the mortar is disturbed 
while setting, these crystals are broken down and the mortar 
is weakened. For this reason mortar containing cement should 
not begin to set before the brick is in place. Lime mortar 
hardens by combining with carbon dioxide from the air, and 
the lime is converted back to calcium carbonate (limestone). 
Cement mortar will set under water, and obtains its maximum 
strength in about one year. 

5. Consistency, — Under ordinary conditions mortar should 
be pasty enough to be easily worked with the trowel and to 
stick to the trowel and to the brick„ but should not be so sticky 
that it will not easily 'Hhrow^^ from the trowel to the wall, 
leaving the trowel clean. 

6. Mortar Bed ; Mortar Box. — All mortar must be thoroughly 
mixed. For mixing, a mortar box should be provided. A 
lime mortar bed is sometimes used when lime mortar is to be 
stacked to season. This is made by spreading sand upon a 
platform of planks. A shallow place is scooped out in the 
sand, and into this the mortar is dumped. When colored 
mortar is used, a separate mortar box is desirable, or for small 
jobs a section of the large box may be boarded off. On large 
jobs money may be saved by using a small power-driven 
mortar mixer. A platform for storing lime mortar putty 
is also desirable. 

7. Tools and Equipment. — A hose throwing a good stream 
of water, a barrel of water, a pail, a mortar hoe, and a square 
shovel are necessary. 

8. Location of Mortar Bed. — The mortar box and platform 
should be located near enough to the building so that the 
mortar will not have to be carried far, but they should be 
distant enough to prevent splashing the building. The 
sand pile should be near the box where fresh loads of sand may 
be easily dumped. 

9. Lime Mortar: Nature. — ^Lime mortar costs less than 
other mortars. It hardens slowly and its strength increases 



with age. It loses strength with continuous excessive damp- 
ness and therefore should not be used for outside basement 
walls in continuously damp soil or for other damp places . When 
basement walls in damp places are thoroughly waterproofed, 
however, this objection would not hold. 

10. Use. — Lime mortar is excellent for construction work 
above ground except in unusually exposed positions or in 
heavily loaded walls. It should not be used for walls with a 
large number of openings, leaving small piers to carry heavy 
loads. Straight lime mortar should not be used for fireplaces 
and flues. 

11. Slaking Lump Lime.— Lime mortar should be made up 
in as large batches as is consistent with thorough mixing. 

12. Lime is slaked by being placed in the mortar box and 
adding water. It becomes very hot, giving off vapor and burst- 
ing into powder, which reduces to a paste called lime putty. 

13. Every lime requires slightly different manipulation 
and the best results can be obtained by following manu- 
facturer's or dealer's directions, in the absence of which these 
suggestions are made. Experienced labor should be used for 
this purpose. 

14. The higher the percentage of calcium the more quickly 
the lime slakes and the more heat is generated. Calcium 
limes are known as quick-slaking limes. A magnesian or 
high-magnesian lime will slake more slowly, combine with 
less water, generate less heat, undergo less increase in volume, 
set more slowly, and shrink less than a high calcium lime. 
Magnesian limes are known as slow-slaking limes. High- 
calcium limes may slake in a few minutes; high-magnesian 
limes may take half an hour. 

15. With quick-slaking lime always add hme to the water; 
with medium limes add water to the lime. Care must be taken 
with quick-slaking lime to have sufficient water in the box 
before the lime is shoveled in to prevent ''burning'' or over- 
heating. Hoe thoroughly and quickly and add more water 
at the slightest appearance of escaping steam. 

16. With slow-slaking limes the danger lies in putting on too 
much water. Moisten a slow lime at first, cautiously adding 



more water as slaking proceeds. Do not hoe until slaking is 
practically complete. Use hot water in cold weather, or if 
this is not practicable keep the mortar box covered. 

17. Burned Hme is granular and non-plastic, and will not 
bind the sand together; ^^ drowned'' lime is lumpy and watery. 
Both are practically useless for making mortar. 

18. The laborer should have a good supply of water. A 
barrel of water and a pail should be handy for quick action if 
the lime starts to burn. 

19. As soon as the slaking process is complete, mix the sand 
with the paste and shovel it out on the wooden platform, to 
remain until it is tempered for use. Sometimes where a poorer 
grade of lime is used, there is a residue of impurities after the 
lime is slaked. In such cases slake the lime in a separate box, 
afterward screening it into the mortar box and mixing it with 
the sand. Such lime does not generally make so strong a 
mortar as that which leaves no residue. It is a cheaper grade 
and for that reason is used for much ordinary low cost work. 

20. Lump lime should generally be slaked at least one week 
before being used. This is a safe rule to follow, although some 
limes can safely be used two or three days after slaking. At 
the time of slaking some of the lime particles may escape the 
slaking process. If the mortar is mixed and used too soon, 
these particles of free lime will afterwards take up water, 
causing the mortar to be crumbly and to '*pop.'' Ageing 
lime paste enables it to carry more sand. 

21. Most frequently hydrated lime is mixed directly with 
the sand. When so nfiixed, it does not trowel so easily as mor- 
tar made from lime putty. Hydrated lime does not require 

22. Proportioning Lime Mortar. — ^There is no set rule regard- 
ing the proper proportion of sand to lime. If there is too 
much lime in the mortar, it sticks to the trowel. If there is 
too much sand, it is stiff and dif&cult to work. If the sand 
particles are very fine, more lime will be required. Experi- 
ence is the best guide to the proper proportioning. 

23. Preparing for Use. — When the sanded and stacked lump 
lime paste is required for mortar, it is shoveled back into the 


mortar box and tempered by adding water and working it up to 
the right consistency referred tointhe trade as being ''fat'' or 
''greasy/' that is, until it is workable with the trowel. It 
should have body enough to stay on the trowel without run- 
ning off but should be soft enough to throw easily from the trowel 
to the wall, leaving a clean trowel. It should be hoed from end 
to end of the box until the lime is thoroughly distributed 
throughout the mass. If lime is left in spots or small masses, 
the mortar will not be so strong or so efficient. 

24. Portland Cement -lime Mortar: Nature. — Portland 
cement-lime mortar is sometimes called '^compos." It is com- 
posed of Portland cement, lime, and sand. It naturally has 
greater strength and is more weather-resistive than lime mortar. 
It will set in damp places and will stand fairly high tempera- 
tures. It works as well under the trowel as lime mortar. 

25. Uses. — This mortar is a good allround type of mortar, 
and is suitable for almost any use. 

26. Mixing Lime Putty. — In mixing cement-lime mortar, 
the cement should be tempered into the sanded lime putty. 
Do not mix the cement until the lime and sand have aged. If 
hydrated lime is used, it should be mixed dry with the cement 
and sand by spreading thin layers of each rnaterial in the mor- 
tar box and thoroughly mixing them before the water is added. 
Hoe the mortar from end to end of the mortar box. It should 
be just fat enough for the hoe to come out clean. 

27. Retempering. — It should be mixed in small batches and 
used at once, as it attains its initial set in a short time. If 
it is retempered, the same observations apply as in the case of 
cement mortar. 

28. Mixture. — A good proportion is six parts* of sand to one 
part of cement and one part of lime. 

29. Portland Cement Mortar: Nature. — Portland cement 
mortar is the strongest mortar. Although cubes of cement 
mortar, test the highest in strength, the fact that it works 
short and is not as plastic as other mortars makes it diffi- 
cult for the bricklayer thoroughly to bed the joints, some- 
times resulting in a wall that is weaker than one laid in a more 
plastic mortar. 


30. It is used for piers or walls which carry heavy loads, 
for wet or exposed situations, fire and party walls, work under 
water, brick footings, sills, chimney and parapet caps, free- 
standing chimneys above roofs, brick steps, cheek walls to 
steps, brick porch and terrace floors, and similar exposed 
locations, and for use in freezing weather. 

31. Straight Portland cement mortar works *' short'' 
and much is wasted because it does not stick. This is espe- 
cially true with "soft, or porous, brick which absorb the moisture 
from the cement too quickly. 

32. Adding Lime Putty. — By replacing approximately 10 
per cent of the cement with an equal amount of hydrated lime, 
or an equal amount of lime paste, or ''putty/' the mortar, 
being more plastic, will more easily and thoroughly fill the 
joints, thus making a stronger job, 

33. Mixing. — A good proportion is one part of Portland 
cement to three parts of clean sharp sand, replacing about 10 
per cent of the weight of the cement with hydrated lime or an 
equal amount of lime putty. The sand and cement should 
be thoroughly mixed before adding the water. The lime 
putty should be added last. Hydrated lime is usually mixed 
dry with the cement and sand. If hydrated lime is soaked 
overnight before using, it will make an easier working mortar, 
although this practice is not advocated by the hme 

34. Retempering. — Specifications usually require that 
cement mortar shall not be retempered after taking its initial 
set. When larger quantities of mortar are mixed than are 
required immediately, however, the usual custom is to retem- 
per it, adding water to replace that which may have dis- 
appeared by evaporation. 

35. Retempering makes cement mortar more plastic and 
delays the final set. It seriously decreases the strength of 
quick-setting cements, such as natural cement. Professor 
Ira 0. Baker^ states that natural cement may lose 30 to 40 
per cent strength by retempering after standing 20 min. 
and 70 to 80 per cent after standing 1 hr. 

1 *' Treatise on Masonry Construction," p. 100. 


33. With a slower setting Portland cement, the loss of 
strength is probably not serious if the mortar is retempered 
immediately after the initial set. Tests mentioned by L. C. 
Sabin^ show that retempering is not deleterious to the tensile 
strength of Portland cement mortar if it is retempered several 
times during the period in which it is standing. It should 
not be allowed to stand undisturbed for any length of time. 
The loss of strength is greater with fine sand than with coarse. 

37. Retempered mortar shrinks more than ordinary mortar 
in setting and may cause small cracks to appear on the surface 
of the joints. Mortar insufficiently mixed may have its 
strength increased by retempering. 

38. The safest procedure is not to use mortar which has 
taken its initial set, especially if made with natural cements 
and quick-setting varieties of Portland cement. 

39. Lump Lime.^ — -Lump lime is made from limestone 
burned or ''calcined" in kilns. There are several grades of 
lime which may be fat or lean limes according to their increase 
in volume when slaked. Fat limes carry more sand, work 
more easily under the trowel, and are smoother to the touch 
than lean limes. 

40. There are two grades of lime: a, Selecjied lime which 
is well burned and picked free from all foreign material; and 
h. Run-of-kiln which is well burned but is not free of foreign 
material. Old or air-slaked lime must not be used. It 
may be recognized by the amount of powdered lime and the 
soft crumbly nature of the lumps. Good lime" should slake 
upon the addition of water into a soft smooth paste free from 
lumps and sediment. Lime slakes in the air and spoils, there- 
fore it is advisable to slake it at once upon arrival at the job. 
Unslaked lime must be kept away from dampness and water. 
Fires have been caused by water reaching it when stored. If it 
is necessary to store it, select a dry, covered place and keep it in 
the barrels with the covers on. Lime is sometimes powdered 
before shipping and is known as pulverized, or ground, lime. 

41. Hydrated Lime. — Hydrated lime is made by slaking 
lump lime at the plant and comes in the form of a fine dry 

1 "Cement and Concrete,'' p. 252. 


powder. Its use saves time and the labor of slaking on the 
job and the space required for the seasoning of sanded lime 
paste. It must not be confused with pulverized lump lime. 

42. Portland Cement. — Portland cement is composed of 
ingredients artificially and correctly proportioned, burned in a 
kiln, and ground into a fine powder. It sets rapidly and will 
harden in water. 

43. Natural Cement.— While natural cement is used success- 
fully by some contractors who carefully follow manufacturers' 
directions, it has several objectionable qualities. It is a 
variable product; and it sets so rapidly that it must always be 
retempered before placed in the wall. Bricklayers, in fact, 
prefer to use it when retempered, since this increases its plastic- 
ity, but at the same time seriously reduces its strength. 

44. Natural cement is not as strong as Portland cement; 
1 : 1 natural cement mortar having about the same strength at 
the end of one ;^ear as 1:3 Portland cement mortar. 

45. Sand. — -Sand should be ''sharp,'^ that is, it should have 
sharp angular particles and should be clean or free from loam, 
clay, vegetable matter, and stones. Sand may be tested by 
shaking it up with water in a bottle with the water level above 
the sand. If loam is present, it will settle on top of the sand. 
Wet sand squeezed in the hand should not bind together and it 
should not leave a slimy deposit on the hand. When rubbed 
on the palm of the hand, clean sand will have a gritty sound. 
Too much sand makes the mortar short and it will not hang to 
the trowel or to the brick. Too little sand makes the mortar 
sticky, hard to throw^ and leaves a dirty trowel. Sand should 
be well screened to eliminate the larger stones. Pebbles in 
the mortar delay the bricklayer, for he has to remove them, one 
by one, with his trowel. Well-graded sand containing the 
fewest voids makes the strongest mortar. When screening 
sand, a long vertical screen of ^^-in. wire mesh is faster than 
one with square openings. 

46. For joints % in. or wider, it is necessary to add coarse 
sand or fine gravel, the size increasing with the size of the 
joint. This is required to make the mortar stiff enough so 
that reasonable progress can be made with the work. 


47. Mortar Color. — Mortar color is a powder or a paste 
which will give mortar any color desired for blending or 
contrasting with the brick used. If the straight colors are not 
suitable, almost any color or shade may be made by blending 
two or more colors together. Crushed granite or colored 
stone and colored sands are used to a limited extent as mortar 
colors and these colors are absolutely permanent. Pure 
white joints may be obtained with white sand, ground lime- 
stone or marble. Artificial colors are almost always used. 
Care must be taken to select colors of good quality. Poor 
colors fade quickly. Mineral colors are* best, although in 
time strong sunlight will fade any artificial color. Paste 
colors are easier to mix but do not color as much mortar per 
pound as dry colors and are therefore more expensive. 

48. Always mix colored mortar to a stiff consistency. The 
more thoroughly colored mortar is mixed, the less color it will 
require to produce a given shade. Determining the exact 
quantity of color and the method of mixing are best arrived at 
by following the directions of the manufacturer. Dry colors 
will mix more quickly if soaked in water some time before using, 

49. If the bricklayer runs out of regular mortar, it is more 
economical to have him use colored mortar for backing up the 
wall until his supply of uncolored mortar is replaced. His 
time is worth more than the difference in cost of the mortars. 
If the wall is to be plastered directly on the brickwork or is to 
be stuccoed, this should never be done; the mortar color will 
work through and discolor the plaster or stucco'surface. 

50. Mortar color should not be mixed with hot lime as it 
will bleach out the color. Good color should neither seriously 
weaken nor affect the setting qualities of the mortar. Addi- 
tional cement is sometimes added to the mortar to offset any 
weakening of the mortar, due to the addition of color. 

51. Cold -weather Jobs. — It is not difficult to construct 
brickwork in cold weather if proper methods are followed. 
It is of the utmost importance that brick should be absolutely 
dry when laid. Cover the brick piles with tarpaulins when the 
brick are delivered. Bricks covered with ice will not bond 
with the mortar. Impervious brick are laid with more diffi- 


culty in freezing weather than are non-impervious brick. 
Portland cement mortar is most frequently used in freezing 
weather. If it attains its initial set before freezing, it will 
continue to set even though frozen. Lime mortar sets too 
slowly. Natural cement is weakened by cold weather. It is 
considered good practice to add only just enough lime to make 
the mortar workable, for lime retards the setting of cement 
mortar and makes it much more susceptible to freezing before 
the initial set' is attained. On the other hand, to raise its 
temperature, some contractors habitually mix a generous pro- 
portion of hot freshly slaked lime with cement mortar. On 
some winter jobs, the mortar is delivered to the bricklayers 
smoking hot from the addition of lime. Although this is not 
considered good practice, it has been followed on a number of 
large jobs and seems to work out satisfactorily. Salt lowers 
the freezing point of mortar and gives it more time to set, 
but as it absorbs water, it is likely to keep the wall damp. It 
also causes efflorescence due to the salt crystals forming on 
the face of the wall when the masonry dries out. If salt is used, 
however, not over a 5 per cent solution of salt should be added. 
Calcium chloride lowers the temperature more than salt and 
hastens the setting of the mortar. It also will cause efflores- 
cence for the same reasons as given above. 

52. On a small job in a moderate climate it may be possible 
to avoid the expense of special equipment. Manure may be 
spread on the soil around footings to prevent penetration of 
frost beneath them. Sand may be piled in a long high heap. 
The top and sides of the heap will freeze and sand for use can 
be tunnelled from the ends. The openings at the ends should 
be kept closed. Frozen sand must not, of course, be used for 
making mortar. Mortar should have attained its initial set 
before it freezes, although some contractors who have success- 
fully carried on operations in freezing weather are satisfied if 
the mortar can be kept from freezing until placed in the wall. 
A "salamander," or a fire kept going near the box will help in 
preventing the mortar from freezing. 

53. In severely cold weather, however, and on larger work 
the following methods may be followed and equipment used. 



54, All materials, including brick, water, cement, and sand 
should be heated so that the mortar will be about 60° F. when 
brick are laid. Sand may be heated most conveniently by 
running horizontally through the material pile a corrugated 
sheet-metal culvert about 20 in. in diameter and 10 ft. long, 
or an old steel chimney stack or any other circular iron sec- 
tion, keeping a fire going at one end. Water may be heated 
in a coil attached to the water main with a fire in the center or 
in an iron can placed over a fire. Water should not be allowed 
to get much hotter than 165° F. or it will injure the mortar. 
If water boils, cool it with cold water. 

55. It is highly desirable that methods be provided by 
which the bricklayer may have more year-round employment. 
Building in the past has been limited largely to definite 
seasons of the year. Happily, the present tendency is to do 
more winter construction. Scaffolds enclosed in tarpaulins 
and heating units known as salamanders in which coke is 
burned have aided greatly in carrying on cold-weather work. 



1. The Trowel. — The trowel is the most important of all 
the tools used by the bricklayer. It usually consists of a tri- 
angular shaped flat piece of steel with a wooden handle pro- 
jecting from one end. 

2. Use. — It is used for picking up mortar from the mortar 
board, for throwing the mortar on the wall, for spreading the 
mortar when necessary to make the proper bed for the brick, 
for tapping the brick down into its bed when necessary, and 
for clipping an^ cutting off brick. There are many special 
trowels, including those for ''striking" the joints between the 
brick and for ''pointing.'' 

3. Selection. — There are many variations in the width, 
length, and weight of trowels and each bricklayer must 
select the one with which he can work to best advantage for 
each particular job. 

4. Brick Trowel. — The brick trowel is used for regular 
bricklaying. It is the largest trowel and varies from 10 to 

Fig. 15. — Brick trowel. 

13 in. in length and from 5 to 8 in. in width. The Brades', 
or London, pattern is well tempered and balanced, and weighs 
from 13-^ to l}i lbs. The short and wide trowel is considered 
by many to be the most efficient, as the weight of the mortar 
is nearer the wrist and does not tire the bricklayer or cause as 
much wrist trouble as if the trowel were longer and the weight 




farther out. The Philadelphia pattern is of this type. Its 
heavier head makes it better for clipping and cutting bricks. 
The round-heel pattern is especially good for the latter 

5. Buttering Trowel. — The buttering trowel is used to 
place or butter the mortar upon the bed and end of pressed 
brick that are to be laid with a buttered joint. The mortar 
is gathered upon the back of the trowel. A buttering trowel 
is frequently made of a cut-down brick trowel. 

6. Pointing and Striking Trowels. — There are many styles 
of pointing and striking trowels varying from 4 to 7 in. in 

Fig. 16. — Pointing trowel. 

Fig. 17.^ Another type of pointing 

length and from 2 to 3 in. in width, which are used for various 
jobs where the large brick trowel would not be practical. 
Their main use is in pointing and striking up joints and for 
removing mortar from the face of the wall. 

7. Fountain Trowels. — Several types of fountain trowels 
have been invented for the purpose of enabling the bricklayer 
to spread larger amounts^ of mortar each time he dips his 
trowel. These devices have not received the endorsement of 
the trade as a whole. 

8. Bricklayer's Chisel.— A brick is of such a nature that it 
can only be cut by a hard blow. It is common practice to 

Fig. 18. — Bricklayer's chisel or bolster. 

use hard and rapid blows with the edge of a steel trowel for 
rough work but for finer work the brick-cutting chisel, or 



"set" or ''bolster," as it is usually called, is used together 
with a bricklayer's hammer. This is especially necessary in 
cases where a neat, accurate cut is desired. The chisels are 
made from 2}i to 4>^ in. in width and the cutting end is 
ground to about 60 deg. with the straight side. 

9. Bricklayer's Hammer. — ^The bricklayer's hammer has 
a flat head on one end and a chisel peen for cutting brick on the 
other. It weighs from 1 lb., 8 oz. to 3 lbs., 8 oz. For splitting 
and rough breaking, the square head should be used. 

Fig. 19. — Bricklayer's hammer. 

10. Scutch. — The scutch is similar to the bricklayer's 
hammer but has a chisel peen at both ends. 

Fig. 20. — Brick chisel. 

11. Brick Chisel. — The brick chisel is a steel chisel for 
cutting openings in the wall. 

Fig. 21.— Star drill. 

12. Star Drill.— The star drill is used for drilling small, 
round holes in the wall. 



13. Jointer. — The jointer is used for making the various 
types of joints between the bricks upon the face of the wall. 
Such joints as the V, the concave, the beaded, the square, etc. 
require the use of this tool. They should have a hard temper, 
for the sand wears them out quickly. 

Fig. 22. — Double brick jointet. 

14. Tool Bag. — ^The tool bag is usually made of canvas and 
is useful for carrying tools from place to place. 

15. Square. — The square is used to measure angles of 
90 deg., or one-quarter of an entire circle. It is used for laying 
out corners and walls. The carpenter's steel square is fre- 
quently used for this purpose. 



Fig. 23. — Steel square. * 

16. Pocket Rule. — The pocket rule is useful for various 
measurements on the wall, including distances between a 
number of courses in order to determine the correctness of the 
thickness of the mortar joints, the number of courses per given 
distance, the thickness of the wall, measuring closers, etc. 

Fig. 24. — Plumb rule. 

17. Plumb Rule: With Plumb Bob,— The plumb rule 
is used to keep the wall plumb. The older type consists of a 


board cut true and square, about 4 ft. in length, 4 to 5 in. 
wide, and l}i in. in thickness. There is a round hole bored 
through the flat side of the board several inches from the end. 
When this board is placed vertically against the wall, a lead 
weight suspended from the other end hangs in this hole. If 
the wall is plumb, or perpendicular, the plumb line will come 
along the exact center of the board. Under this condition the 
wall is plumb. This type of plumb rule is slower to use than 
the spirit level and a strong wind interferes with its satisfac- 
tory use. 

18. Plumb Rule : With Spirit Level. — The modern form of 
plumb rule (Eig. 24) is made of hardwood and is called a 
spirit level. It contains two tubes of glass at right angles 
to each other, one in the side and one in the end. These 
tubes are nearly filled with a Hquid, leaving only a small 
bubble of air in the tube. When the plumb rule is placed 
horizontally upon the wall and the bubble in the tube upon 
the side of the level is exactly in the center of the tube, the 
wall is level horizontally. When the level is placed vertically 
against the wall and the bubble in the tube in the end is in the 
exact center of the tube, the wall is plumb vertically. The 
average bricklayer's plumb rule is 4 ft. in length. Occasion- 
ally, small plumb rules are used for plumbing special jobs. 
Spirit levels should be constantly checked for^accuracy. 

19. Straightedge. — The straightedge is a piece of pine 
lumber from 5 to 16 ft. long, about U^ in. thick, and from 6 

£3^ EDOB5 ro&£ 

Fig. 25. — Detail of straightedge. Material— IH in. X 6 in. white pine. 

to 8 in. wide. Its long edges are true and parallel. By 
placing the ends of the straightedge upon two walls or piers 
to be lined up and the spirit level upon the straightedge, the 
accuracy of the levels of the two walls may be determined. 
It acts as an extension of the spirit level to cover distances 
longer than the length of the level. 



20. Hod. — The hod is a V-shaped box with one end open 
and rounded and the other end closed, with a handle for 
carrying, and is used for mortar and brick. Hods are con- 
structed of both wood and steel, the latter being the most 
durable. The hod carrier fills the mortar hod at the mortar 
bed, the hod being held upright by a support known as a 
mortar hod shank, raises it to his shoulder and carries it up 
the ladder or runway to the mortar board where he empties it 
from the open end. The mortar hod is approximately 24 by 
12 by 12 in. The brick hod is approximately 21 by 7 by 7 in. 

"\R0>4 c\-^\3' 

Fig. 26. — Mortar hod. 

Fig. 27.— Brick hod. 

21. Wheelbarrow. — Upon large jobs using a material joist 
and in any job where the mortar can be deposited upon the 
mortar board conveniently, the mortar is carried more econom- 
ically in wheelbarrows. A steel wheelbarrow will last longer, 
because it will not warp from the moisture of the mortar. 
One should be selected which will enable a man to handle 
its load conveniently and quickly. Special designs are on the 
market for both mortar and brick barrows. 

22. Mortar Board.— A mortar board is a surface constructed 
of square-edged boards 3 to 4 ft. square, cleated at the back to 
hold them together, and is placed upon the scaffold convenient 
to the bricklayer. It should be kept well filled by the hod 

23. For laying pressed brick, a mortar board about 30 
in. square is provided, standing on legs which bring the top 
of the board about 30 in. high. 



24. Mortar Box. — Mortar boxes are used for mixing mortar. 
They vary in size according to the job. Some are built up 
and sent from job to job, others are in sections nailed together; 
and some are roughly constructed for each job. Metal mortar 

Detail of mortar board. 

boxes are manufactured. The nearer waterproof they are the 
better, although the sand and mortar soon close up any cracks. 
The cubical contents of the box should be known in order to 
secure accurate mixtures. A box 5 ft. by 10 ft. by 10 in. 

Fig. 29. — Mortar box. Capacity IH cu. yds. 

high will hold approximately m cu. yd. Its exact capacity 
when filled to the top is 41% cu. ft.; or, in theory l}i cu. ft. 
more than l}i yd. A mortar box is seldom filled to capacity, 
however, and for all practical purposes the size given may be 
considered a l^-yd. box. 



25. Screen. — For rapid screening of the sand, a long, vertical 
opening which is narrow horizontally is the most efficient. 
The screen should be of the best quality and kept in good repair, 
as a few pebbles in the mortar will cause the bricklayer to 
lose much time. A %-in. wire mesh is 
satisfactory. Flat wire meshes some- 
times permit the flat stones found in 
bank sand to sift through. 

26. Mortar Hoe. — Mortar hoes are 
necessary for mixing mortar and for 
tempering it. They frequently have two 
holes through the blade. The size and 
the weight of the hoe to be used will be 
determined by experience and the nature 
of the mortar being mixed. 

27. Shovel.— The shovel should be 
square-pointed. The size and weight 
will be determined by the nature of the 
material to be handled. Too large a 
shovel is impractical. 

Finger Protectors and Gloves. — Various forms of protec- 

FiG. 30. — Sand screen. 


tors for the hands are sometimes used. The constant working 
with rough brick sometimes wears the skin from fingers and 
thumbs until they are sensitive; and to work with sore hands 
is painful. This is particularly true when brick is being laid 

Fig. 31. — Mortar hoe. 

with shoved joints. Canvas finger stalls are sometimes used 
to protect the fingers. In extremely cold weather a special 
type of glove may be worn. 

29. Line. — The ''line'^ is a strong whip cord from 25 to 
100 ft. long. The best quality should be used and for the 



sake of efficiency and good workmanship a line should be 
discarded as soon as it becomes worn or brittle. Too thick 
a line should not be used if accurate work is desired. It 
is customary to keep each course of brick straight and plumb 
by the use of the line. In ordinary work the corners are 
carried up first and the line is stretched tight and plumb 
between them. The upper, outside edges of the outer tier at 
each course are carried exactly to the line but the line should 
not be crowded, that is, the edge of the brick should not force 
the line out of plumb. 

Fig. 32.— a "trig." 

30. Trig. — ^Long lines are frequently supported midway by 
a loose loop of string held by a brick resting on a second brick 
laid at the correct height in advance of the wall. This device 
is known as a "trig.'' 

Fig. 33,— Plumb bob. 

31. Plumb Bob. — The plumb bob is a pointed, metallic 
weight which may be attached to the line and suspended near 
a wall to determine its vertical plumbness. 

32. Rod. — The rod is a piece of hard wood approximately 
% by 2 in. and of varying lengths. It is used as a tool rest 



when striking rodded joints or raised mortar joints, that is to 
say, joints which project a Httle beyond the face of the wall. 

33. Scaffold: Definition. — A scaffold is the staging from 
which the bricklayer works after he has gone beyond the 
height he can reach by standing upon the floor or ground. 

34. Trestles. — In buildings having bearing walls of masonry 
it is customary to build from the inside of the wall. The 
lower part of a basement wall in small buildings is often 
constructed from the excavation and the upper part from the . 
grade level. As the joists are placed and the rough floor- 
ing laid as soon as the wall reaches a floor level, the brick- 

¥iQ. 34. — Detail of trestle. 

layer may work from that floor up to a distance of approxi- 
mately 4 to 5 ft. and may then carry the wall up to the next 
floor level by the use of trestles with two-by-ten scaffold 
planks placed upon them. Where no rough flooring is laid 
upon the joists, the trestles may be placed upon planks laid 
directly upon the joists. 

35. Trestles are usually constructed of boards so braced 
that they form supporting units for the planks. Some are 
hinged at the top and braced by iron hooks or held by ropes 
in order that they may be more conveniently packed for 
delivery to the job. The trestle should be kept 2 to 3 in. 
from the wall in order that the freshly laid brick may not be 



pushed out of line. The joists to be used on the floor above are 
sometimes used for scaffold planking. 

36. Scaffold Squares. — Scaffold squares are portable sup- 
ports for scaffold planks usually constructed of wood in the 

Fig. 35. — Scaffold squares. 

Fig. 36. — Foot scaffold. 

form of squares so that they may be erected at intervals 
perpendicular to the supporting ground or floor, parallel to 
each other, and braced by boards nailed to the upright 
members. Scaffold planks are then laid over their tops. 



37. Foot Scaffolds. — ^Foot scaffolds are constructed of a plank 
raised above the regular scaffold on bricks to enable the brick- 
layer to reach a given height. 


Fig. 37. — Scaffold brackets. 

38. Scaffold Brackets. — Scaffold brackets on the outside of 
the wall are bolted through the wall to a two by four on the 
inside. They are used for supporting scaffolding on the out- 



side of the walls of residences or other small buildings for build- 
ing cornices, etc. (see Brick— How to Build and Estimate). 
39. Putlog Scaffold. — A common form of scaffold used in cases 
where it is desirable or necessary to work from the ground up, 
on the outside of a building, is the putlog scaffold. It is usually 
constructed of rough timber. Three by fours or larger poles 

Fig. 38.— Putlog scaffold. 

are erected vertically approximately 8 ft. apart and approxi- 
mately 54 in. from the face of the wall. The poles should rest 
upon pieces of boards or planks to prevent settling into the 
ground. One-by-eight boards called ^'ledgers'' are firmly 
nailed horizontally on the inside of the vertical poles. It is 
safer to nail a cleat to the pole just under the ledger. 



40. Putlog,— A length of three-by-four pole known as a 
'^putlog'' rests on top of the one-by-eight horizontal ledger 
and against the three-by-four vertical pole. The other end 
rests in the face of the wall to a depth of one tier. On top of 
the putlogs, five two-by-two planks are laid, leaving a space 
of 2 in. between the planks and the wall. 

(Courtesy Travelers' Insurance Co.) 
Fig. 39. — Spring stays. 

41. Staying,— The poles should be tied to the wall by 
''stays'' through window or other openings. When this is 
impossible, "spring stays'' should be used. Spring stays are 
made by placing two boards in an opening in the wall, placing 
a wedge between the two boards, nailing the ends of the boards 



to the one-by-eight ledgers, and then driving the wedge 
tightly home toward the opening in the wall, thus locking 
the stay in place. When the scaffolding is between two 
buildings, it may be braced against the adjoining building. 
For the first story of a building, the scaffold may be stayed 
by sloping braces nailed to stakes driven into the ground. 
The putlog itself is sometimes used as a stay by driving a 
wooden wedge on top of the putlog into its hole in the wall 
and fastening the wedge in place with nails. In this case, the 
putlog should be nailed to the pole. 






Fig. 40. — Outrigger scaffolds. 

42. Splicing, — When the wall is higher than the length of 
the pole, two poles may be spliced together by nailing cleats 
as wide as the pole and about 3 ft. long, to opposite faces of the 
poles. Diagonal braces should be nailed across the outside 
of the poles. 

43. Care must be taken to nail everything firmly, as the 
life of the worker depends upon the scaffold standing up under 
its heavy load of men, brick, mortar, and equipment. Never 
nail anything temporarily — it may be forgotten. 

44. The scaffold planks should not be allowed to remain 
upon the scaffold after the working level above them is in use, 



as falling mortar will splash on the wall when it hits the 

45. Outriggers. — An ''outrigger'' is a steel or a wooden beam 
projecting from a building to support or suspend a scaffold. 
In buildings where the floor is of wood, the outrigger beam may- 
rest upon the ledge and be held by a length of board fastened 
to the joists. In steel construction a steel I beam is used for 
an outrigger. It is fastened to the steel frame work of the 
building by steel rods bent in the shape of a U, threaded on 
both ends and tightened around the outrigger and the beam 
through a flat strap of steel or wood. Scaffold planks are 
sometimes placed upon the outrigger and the work carried up 
by means of trestles placed upon the planks. (Fig. 40) 

Fig. 41. — Outrigger scaffold in use. 

46. Suspended Scaffold. — The suspended scaffold is popular 
in large jobs upon buildings of steel or reinforced concrete 
frame construction where the framework for several stories is 
erected ahead of the brickwork, thus furnishing a support 
for suspending the scaffold. The scaffold is suspended by 
cables attached to outriggers with winding drums upon the 
scaffold platforms. As the brickwork rises, the ends of the 
cables may be attached to outriggers at higher levels without 
disturbing the bricklayers. This form of scaffold is most 
suitable for inclosing during cold weather. 



Fig. 42. — MetEod of enclosing suspended scaffold for winter construction. 


Fig. 43. — Material hoist. 



47. Derrick.— A derrick is sometimes used for hoisting bricks, 
mortar, and other materials. Power is supplied by an elec- 
tric or gasoline motor, by a steam engine, or by hand. It 
consists of an upright mast and a boom pivoted at the bottom of 
the mast. The whole may turn in any direction and the boom 
may be raised and lowered. 

48. Material Hoists. — Material hoists operated by horse, 
steam, gasoline, or electric power are used upon medium and 
large construction jobs. They reduce the necessary number of 
runways and ladders, as materials may be carried directly to 
the level on which the men are working. ' Where suspended 

Fig. 44. — Laying out a building. — 

scaffolds are used, the hoist is frequently erected in such a 
manner that the wheelbarrows may be run directly on the 
scaffold from the hoist at any height (Fig. 43). . 

49. Batter Boards,— In laying out a building three stakes are 
often driven in the ground about 3 ft. away from the line of the 
wall at each corner of the building. Batter boards (1 by 4 
or 6 in.) are nailed to the stakes forming a right angle parallel 
with the walls. Saw cuts are made in the board for holding 
the lines in the correct position. The batter boards may be 
squared by laying out a triangle on the ground with length of 
sides in the proportion of 6, 8, and 10, forming a triangle, the 
6 and 8 sides paralleling the walls (Fig. 44). 



1. Definition. — Bond is an arrangement of built up brick or 
other units laid so that their overlapping thoroughly ties the 
units together, enabling the whole to act as a unit in resisting 

2. Elasticity of Brick Walls. — As a brick wall has tremendous 
bearing capacity, it is seldom called upon to support more 
than a small fraction of the load ^that it will easily carry. 
Occasionally, a foundation 
settles unevenly, and in 
such cases the superimposed 
wall is subjected to length- 
wise stresses. Because of 
its many small units, a brick 
wall will accommodate itself 
to a certain degree of uneven 
settlement without de- 
veloping serious cracks. 

3. Selection of Bonds. — 
In selecting the bond, due 
consideration must be given 
to appearance and cost. Brickwork has such great strength 
that only occasionally will this be a factor in the selection of 
the bond. One must consider the bond in relation to the type 
of brick to be used, the joint to be selected, and the color of the 
mortar. A great variety of pleasing geometrical patterns 
may be secured by skillful design. 

4. Stretchers. — Brick laid lengthwise of the wall with their 
longest edges parallel to the face of the wall are called stretchers. 

5. Headers. — Brick laid at right angles to the stretchers or 
across the wall with their ends parallel to the face of the wall 
ue called headers. Header courses cost more to lay than 


Fig. 45. 



Plate I. — Various types of bond. A. Common bond, Flemish header 
course. B, Common bond, full header course. C. English bond, closers at 
corners, D. Dutch bond. 



Plate II. — Various types of bond. A. English cross bond, closers at 
corner. B. Flemish bond, closers at corners. C Garden wall bond. D. 
Double stretcher Flemish bond. 



stretcher courses and should be used only in sufficient quanti- 
ties properly to tie the wall together in walls constructed 
for strictly utilitarian purposes and for backing up (see 
Fig. 45). 

6. The Use of Headers. — In a wall constructed of common 
brick, all of the headers showing upon the face of the wall are 


auTs/£>^ r/^/?^ 



Fia. 46. — Illustrating the use of various terms. 

through headers. As face brick is more expensive than 
common brick, wherever through headers are not necessary, 
it is sometimes customary to use ^*bats" (half brick) where 
headers are to appear upon the face of the wall. Where bats 
are used, be careful to cut the brick so both halves can be 
utilized and so avoid waste. The minimum spacing of header 








Fig. 47. 

courses is generally defined by local building ordinances and 
varies from every fifth to every seventh course. 

7. Vertical Joints, — Vertical joints in courses of the same 
construction should be perpendicularly over each other; 
otherwise the neat appearance of the wall will be spoiled and 
the brickwork will look slovenly. Keeping vertical joints in 




line is called ''keeping the perpends^' or ''keeping the end 
joints plumb." 

8. Bats and Closers. — It is frequently necessary to clip some 
of the brick to varying lengths in order to fill spaces and carry 


Fig. 48. — Flemish bond with concave joints. Note the charming effect 
of the contrast between light mortar and darker brick. Note also special 
plinth blocks and gauged "Jack" arches. 

the wall to the corner. A half brick is commonly referred to 
as a bat; three-fourths of a brick is referred to as a "three- 
quarter;" a quarter of a brick is commonly called a "closer/' 



sometimes spelled '* closure/' A ''queen closer^' is a brick 
clipped diagonally across the end, leaving only one-half of the 
end face; a ''split'' is a brick split in two with the break parallel 
to the bed of the brick. A "king closer" is a brick cut so 
that it tapers from a width of 2 in. at one end to a width of 4 
in. at the other. (Fig. 47) 

9. Fundamental Bonds. — Fundamentally, there are only 
three types of bond in good brickwork, running bond, English 
bond, and Flemish bond; the multitude of diagonal pattern 
bonds are simply variations of the two latter types. English 
bond consists of alternating courses of headers and stretchers. 
Flemish bond consists of alternating headers and stretchers in 
each course. 

WHOLE blilCt^. %^Z[C}^ 


Fig. 49. — (Upper) Dutch corner. (Lower) English corner. 

10. Dutch and English Corners. — Before describing the 
bonds, attention is called to two distinct methods of starting 
corners in English and in Flemish bond. To locate correctly 
the vertical joints, it is necessary to introduce at the corner a 
unit half a header in width. In English brickwork a header 
split in half, or closer, is used, but in Dutch brickwork the 



closer is eliminated and the same effect obtained by using a 
three-quarter brick in the stretcher courses. If a closer is 
used, never place it directly at the corner. Start with a full 
header, followed by the closer. 

Fig. 50. — Running bond with various types of metal ties. 

11. Running Bond, or Stretcher Bond. — Running bond 
does not, strictly speaking, comply with the definition of 
*^bond" given in paragraph 1 of this chapter, and cannot, 
therefore, be called a real bond, inasmuch as it is apparent that 

"HI ^1 ^1 w ^1 II ir 




Fig. 51. — Variation of stretcher bond. 

being composed entirely of stretchers it provides for longitudi- 
nal strength only. In its most usual form running bond con- 
sists of stretchers laid so that the end 'of each stretcher breaks 
joint at the center of the stretchers in the courses above and 



below. In a variation of this bond the stretchers may overlap 
for a distance of only a quarter of a brick^ as illustrated in 
Fig. 51. It is obvious that some means must be employed 
to tie the outside tier of a wall of this type to the backing. 
This is accomplished by 

a. The questionable use of metal wall ties as shown. It 
is obvious that such wall ties cannot transmit any considerable 
portion of the load to the outside tier of the wall. The back- 
ing, therefore, must be relied upon entirely to carry the load 
and resist any other stresses. Such anchors are also likely 
to rust; although if they are entirely covered with mortar and 

Fig. 52. — Stretcher bond tied to backing with clipped bond. 

have been galvanized after being cut, they are less likely to do 
so. Some careless bricklayers push the metal ties into the 
soft mortar after the brick are laid. This should never be 
done, as the mortar will not then completely cover and bind the 
tie in place, and if pushed in too far, the tie will not lap the 
required distance over the brick in the adjoining tier. 6, 
At every few courses, brick in the backing are laid diagonally, 
the triangular portion of the brick projecting beyond the 
backing, forming a tie sufficient only to attach the outside 
tier to the backing. Tliis is called clipped bond, and while it 
forms a better tie between backing and outside tier than 



when metal wall ties are used, this bond cannot be relied upon 
to transmit load from the backing to the outside tier. Con- 
siderable time is required for the clipping of the brick. 
Clipped bond has the disadvantage of being concealed and 

Fig. 53.- 

-Stretcher bond tied to backing with pairs of headers, 

Blind joints 

offers an opportunity for careless workmanship, c. The 
most satisfactory method of bonding the outside tier in running 
bond is to place a row of headers at every fifth, sixth, or seventh 
course with a blind vertical joint between each pair so that 












Fig. 54. — Running header bond. 



the two headers together will appear as a stretcher. While 
this is good practice and gives a good strong wall by this 
method, the bond really becomes common bond. The 
vertical joint between each pair of headers may be concealed 


either by having a very thin mortar joint between them or by 
coloring the mortar to imitate exactly the color of the brick. 

Fig. 55. — Common bond. 

12. Running Header Bond. — Another type of running bond 
is the running header bond. If desired, variegated brick 
may be used to provide either straight diagonal lines or a 
zigzag, as shown in Fig. 54. 

Fig. 56. — Laying 12 in, common bond wall. Note overlapping of header 


13. Common Bond. — Common bond is really a type of 
running bond. For unexposed work and exposed work where 
cost is the main item, common bond may be laid more quickly 



and is as strong if not stronger than other bonds. Common 
bond, or American bond, as it is sometimes called, if carefully 
laid, produces a pleasing and artistic effect and has been used 
to good advantage on many hnportant buildings. Common 
bond is laid in the same way as running bond, but with a 
course of headers every fifth, sixth, or seventh course. The 

^£'AO^/S. COU^J"^ 

Fig. 57. — Header courses in 12 in. wall, common bond. 

header course is laid either entirely of headers or of alternate 
headers and stretchers, the latter being called a Flemish header 
course. It is the most commonly used of all bonds because 
it is the lowest in cost. At the corner of the wall in each 
header course, it is necessary to lay a three-quarter brick. 
In a 12-in. wall, it is necessary to use two header courses 

Fig. 58. — Greatest permissible shifting of stretchers to assume good bond in 
unexposed work. 

overlapping in the center and extending to the opposite sides 
of the wall. For appearance, vertical joints should be kept 
perpendicular over each other. Under no conditions should 
the end of a stretcher be less than 2 in. from the end of the 
stretcher below it in unexposed work where appearance is 
not a factor. (See Fig. 58.) 




14. English Bond. — English bond consists of alternating 
courses of headers and stretchers, the headers being centered 
on the stretchers, the ends of the stretchers all being in vertical 

Fig. 59. — English bond. Common bond backing. 


English bond with Dutch corner. 

lines in every course that contains them. At the corners a 
closer must be placed in each header course next to the corner 
brick or a three-quarter brick used in the stretcher course to 



take the place of the closer in the stretcher course. Interest- 
ing patterns may be formed on the face of the wall when using 
English bond as here illustrated (see Fig. 61). 

^mi-nrn^rnmrnnnaa aaaacz 
^rnmmrnr-immna aaaaiipac : 

Fig. 61. — One of many methods of emphasizing patterns in English bond. 

15. English and Dutch Cross Bond. — English cross bond, 
also called Dutch cross bond or Dntch bond is a variation of 
English bond. Instead of the ends of all of the stretchers 
aligning with the stretchers in courses above and below, they 
are made to break joint by inserting a header next to the 


Fig. 62. — English cross bond. Common bond backing. 

corner brick in every other stretcher course. The only 
difference between English and Dutch cross bonds is in the 
method of starting the corner. The English cross bond is 
started with an English corner, that is, a closer next to the 
corner header in every header course. With the Dutch corner, 
the stretchers are laid continuously from the corner without 


closers but a three-quarter brick is laid at the corner to start 
each stretcher course. The face of the wall is identical in both 
English and Dutch cross bonds. 

^ □□□□□□e aaonpn— inrnrnr- 

^□□□□ □□Eiirnmr-irnr-iEa^i^nir- 
]L^. II n r^"ii \ r ni [^^^^[^^E 

Fig. 63. — One of many methods of emphasizing patterns in English cross 


16. Flemish Bond. — Flemish bond is the third of the three 
fundamental bonds and consists of alternate headers and 
stretchers in every course, each header centering on the 
stretchers in the courses above and below. At the corners 
closers, or three-quarter brick, are necessary. 

Fig. 64. — Single Flemish bond; Dutch corner. 

17. Single and Double Flemish Bond. — Single Flemish 
bond consists in obtaining the Flemish bond effect on the 
outside of the wall only, the backing being common bond 
and the majority of the exposed headers being bats. This is 
the most usual type of Flemish bond wall. Where_both the 



Fig. 65. — Double Flemish bond. English corner. 


-Double stretcher Flemish bond, stripped joints. 



inner and the outer surfaces of the wall are exposed, both 
being laid in Flemish bond — all headers true headers and not 
bats — -the bond is termed double Flemish bond. 

18. Pouble-stretcher Flemish Bond. — Another type of 
Flemish bond is obtained by constructing each course with 
two stretchers followed by a header and centering the headers 
over the stretcher joints, the joints between each pair of 





Fig. 67.— Double-stretcher Flemish bond. 

stretchers being concealed, or blind, joints. The concealing 
of these joints constitutes the sole difference between double- 
stretcher Flemish bond and double-stretcher garden wall 
bond, in which latter the joint has the usual appearance. 
This bond is also sometimes incorrectly termed ''double 
Flemish bond/' 





i rnim i 

Fig. 68. — Flemish cross bond. 

19. Flemish Cross Bond. — Flemish cross bond consists of 
alternate stretcher courses and Flemish header courses in 
which the headers are all in vertical lines while the stretchers 
in each course break joint. 

20. Flemish Spiral Bond, — This is another variation of 
Flemish bond in which each course is laid with alternate headers 


and stretchers with the headers breaking joint over each other. 
By the use of darker brick for the headers diagonal lines are 
formed on the surface. This bond may be used for circular 
work, and sometimes for chimneys. 

21. Garden Wall Bond.— This wall, as illustrated, was 
commonly used for 8-in. garden walls and consists of three 


^1 imi:~~]rni \\ul 


Fig. 69. — Flemish spiral bond. 

stretchers in each course followed by a header, the headers in 
each course centering between the headers in the courses above 
and below. Where the wall is built with two stretchers 
followed by a header, it is called double-stretcher garden wall 
bond. Garden wall bonds may have from two to five stretch- 
ers between headers. 





Fig. 70.— Garden wall bond. 

22. Bond Pattern Units.— We here illustrate the system 
representing various units upon which all diagonal pattern 
bonds are based. These are constructed by varying the bond, 
and shifting the relation of the headers and stretchers in var- 
ious ways. An example showing one practical application is 
shown in fig. 71. As will be seen, the variations which 
may be worked out are almost endless. 



Plate III. — Units upon which pattern bonds are based. 



II If ' JI '1 11 11 IL ^1 „ 

;^i ^r— nrni — nr ' ilji ^L lUL 

-^1 ¥• ■ 11 ■■ ■'! 11 ■■ II II ■■ ^, 

ZDni 11' '■ 'll-r^l ll.:.,.-..JLJI \[ iL 

11 11 ^1-' 11 ir^ ^f '■ti 1' 

||- 11 U 11 11 ^1 If. . II II 11 

II ■ II II It -11 11-11 II 

11 11 IL_lt ■ ;.....ll ^Ul JI ^L 

-11 ^r^ll ^t II ^1 \\^ — ]| 

-^1 U :.. II 11-.-. ....II 1^- II , 11- II II 

—11 — w ■ -11 II — ^^^1 ^^~if7 

-11 ^f ■ 11 11 ■ II II II II . II II 

^1 ^r . '1 1^ '1 II II ■ '1 „ 

r—^v~ ji_ir.;. . jlji li . . .- Ji ^l 

— ^1 11 ^1 w: - ■ 11 JLLiUi iL- 

-^r—^l ILJI IL-^LIl -.. 11 ^LJL 

11—^1 ^1 — -II — iir" ^1 irTT" 

^^^1 .11-11 __JI ^CHL^JI ^L_^t: 

—11 ^t 1' 11 >' JI 1'- •";, 

-11 II ■ i| It, 11 II II i[ , II 11 

11 ir— 11 II II II II -," ,- 

^f 11 II 11 II II II- II 11 

=nr — 11 ^1 — II ' 11- ,;'i 11, 

II 11 II 11 II II 11 11 II JI 

-^^ — ji 11 II 11 11 11 ir. ...^ 

Fig 71 —An example of pattern bonding 

Fig. 72. — Herring-bone pattern. 



23. Herringbone Pattern. — For panels in walls, for brick 
nogging with half timber, etc., and for walks, a herringbone 

Fig. 73. — Illustrating use of herringbone pattern in upper part of porch 

pattern is frequently used. It is also used for cores of arches. 
It consists of a zigzag course of brick, either laid flat or on 



edge, the end of one brick being laid at right angles against 
the side of u second brick. In paving, the brick may either 
be laid flat or on edge. (Fig. 72) 

Fig. 74. — Diagonal pattern. 

24. Diagonal Pattern.— A diagonal pattern may be used for 
the same purposes as the herringbone pattern, the brick being 
laid end to end at an angle. This is sometimes used as a bond 
when backing up heavy piers or walls, alternate courses being 
laid at right angles to each other. 

1 1 II II II 1 ^ I 

[z^] UUU [^:i] UIJU ^~i UUU = 

UUU i nUuU i ^UUU i n^ 

- ^3nnn^3nnn^3nnn 
~ i ~i I I I I 

Fig. 75. — Basket weave pattern. 

25. Basket, Block, or Diaper Pattern.— Basket, block, or 
diaper pattern is laid in square blocks of parallel brick, each 
block laid at right angles to the block adjoining, as illustrated. 




26. Squint Quoins.— External angles other than right angles 
are called ''squint quoins/' These require some care in laying 


Fig. 76. — Obtuse squint, 
jecting brick. 



Fig. 77. — Obtuse squint with 

Fig. 78, — Acute squint. 

out, to preserve the bond and secure a good appearance. 
Obtuse angle squints are sometimes left with a series of pigeon 



holes as shown. This is not good practice, as the holes may 
conduct water to the inside of the wall. A better method is to 
allow the uncut corners to project, as shown. Sometimes it is 



Fig. 79,— Smallest pier for bay window corner. 

preferable to cut the corners so that the corners of the bricks 
will not project beyond the normal plane of the brickwork. 
A layout for a minimum size squint pier recessed for a double- 
hung window frame in an 8-in. wall is also shown. 


1. Skintled Brickwork May Not Be Recent. — Even with such 
an ancient material as brick, universally employed in building 
construction from the days of the earliest civilization, new 
developments are still possible in the methods of its use. It 
would be rash to say too positively, however, that these devel- 
opments have never been used before, when one considers that 
skilled craftsmen of every race which has had a place in history 
have been experts in the use of this material, and must have 
developed what were then new ways of using it that may have 
waxed popular and then given way to other styles of workman- 
ship while the world was still young. 

2. An instance of this kind occurred when the Ideal wall was 
brought to the attention of the building public a few years ago. 
At that time it was thought to be new, but examples of its use 
were found in many countries of Ehirope, ahd from China 
came a report that the Ideal wall had been used there 
for many hundreds of years. In the same way, skintled 
brickwork, here described as new, may have been perfectly 
familiar to craftsmen of some bygone day, although no examples 
are known to exist nor are these methods described in any 
literature coming to our attention before the publication of this 

3. The credit for this development belongs to prominent 
architects of Chicago who saw new opportunities for artistic 
effects with common brick. They have created a new style 
in bricklaying which has been followed in several hundred 
pretentious residences in the northern suburbs of that city 
along the shores of Lake Michigan, and is already being copied 
in other cities. 

4. Definition. — ^Skintled brickwork is an arrangement of 
exposed brickwork in which the bricks in the outside tier 




are laid irregularly with respect to the normal plane of the 
face of the wall, being set in and out at random or in various 
combinations to produce an uneven effect. 

5. The name applies also to walls in which a rough effect 
is produced by the mortar squeezed out of the joints being 
allowed to project irregularly beyond the face of the wall; 
in which case the bricks may be laid parallel with the line as 
with ordinary brickwork^ or laid in and out as before described. 

6. A few* of these effects are illustrated here, the larger 
photographs showing the general effects obtained, the smaller 
pictures showing exactly how the brick are laid. 



CUirh A'- Wnlroft, Architrrts 

Fig. 80. — Skintled brickwork; C. B. M. A. effect number one. 




Fig. 81. — Detail of skintled brickwork; C. B. M. A. effect number one. 
Plus dimensions indicate projection beyond wall line. Minus dimensions 
indicate set-back from wall line. 



, Architect 
Fig. 82. — Skintled brickwork; C. B. M. A. effect number three. 



■ +y^ ^; o+V +¥+¥ +¥-^¥ o +ia 
^ .r>r -¥-¥ +¥+^ -^-^ *'^'^«ri 

+^' -¥-^ >¥-t^ -^-^' -*^-^ • - . 

_^ +y-^^' o-V oHg" o*Vj,o 
o 4"+V -^"-^' +'^"*^" o -^" "'^"■^*" "f 

-ig" -Ji"+v "'+^"0 0+%" -¥-¥ +ii"+4" 4" 

Fig. 83.— Detail of skintled brickwork; C. B. M. A. effect number three. 
Plus dimensions indicate projection beyond the wall line. Minus dimensions 
indicate set-back from wall line. 



James Roy Allen, Architect 
Fig. 84. — Skintled brickwork; C. B. M. A. effect number five. 



Fig. 85. — Detail of skintled brickwork; C. B. M. A. effect number five. 
Plus dimensions indicate projection beyond wall line; minus dimensions indi- 
cate set-back from wall line. 



James Roy Allen, Architect 
Fig, 86. — Skintled brickwork; C. B. M. A. effect number six. 



Fig. 87. — Detail of skintled brickwork; C. B. M. A. effect number six. 
Built of brick over fired to point of incipient fusion, with consequent warping 
and swelling. 





I ^ '' 


1^ :-^iii^ ■ > 

• im. 


8 .' 










Fig. 88.- 

Russel Walcott, Architect 
-Skintled brickwork; C. B. M, A. effect number seven. 



Fig. 89. — Detail of ^kintled brickwork; C. B. M. A. effect number seven. 

Plus dimensions indicate projection beyond wall line. 




1, Rowlock. — A course of brick laid on edge is known as 
a rowlock course. 

2, Rowlock Header. — -When the brick are laid on edge so 
that only the ends show on the face of the wall, a rowlock 
header course results. 







Fig. 90. 

3. Rowlock Stretcher.— When the brick are laid on edge so 
that only their broad sides show on the face of the wall, the 
method is known as a rowlock stretcher course. * 

4. Soldier Course. — Brick laid on end with the side or face 
of the brick on the face of the wall is known as a soldier course. 

5. Bonded Soldier Course. — Decorative courses are fre- 
quently carried across the wall in various bonds and are known 
as bonded courses. 

6. Panel.— A brick panel is a section of brickwork marked off 
in one of various ways and contained within a border, and form- 
ing a feature of the brickwork. The range of effects which 



may be obtained in this manner is very wide. A panel may 
be a portion of the brickwork sunk or raised beyond the normal 
face of the work; or in other cases various colored brick, 

Fig. 91. — Wall built entirely of rowlock stretchers. 

mortar, tile, stucco, wood, and various patterns in laying the 
brick may be used. 

Fig. 92. — Tapping a brick in Fig. 93.— Plumbing a brick in soldier 
soldier course into place. course. Note stripped vertical joint. 

7. Inserts. — Inserts of tile, stone, terra cotta, selected 
brick, etc. are frequently built into a wall for decorative effect. 



1. Definition. — Jointing is the operation of finishing the 
exterior surface of the mortar joints. 

2. Uses.— In selecting the joint to be used, it is necessary 
to consider the effect desired and the speed with which the 
jointing may be done. Smoothing the surface of the mortar 
with a steel tool tends to make the mortar more compact and 
in some joints gives a slope that will shed water. Considera- 
tion should be given the fact that too deep a joint may form a 


Fig. 94. — A. struck joint. B. weathered joint. C. flush, or plain cut 
D, raked joint. E. stripped joint. F. "V" joint, G, concave 

water pocket. Some joints tend to hide irregularities in the 
laying and in the shape of the brick. A joint should be con- 
sidered as to its width, its cross-section, its color, and its 

3. Width of Joint.— With brick of standard size a joint of 
approximately }i in. plus the width of two headers equals the 
length of a stretcher. By varying the width of the vertical 
joints, joints up to % in. may be made. Wider joints than 
this are used, although joints % in. and above require a coarser 
aggregate. Care must be taken to keep horizontal joints of 




uniform thickness. Laying too heavy a joint at one end of the 
wall will soon make a variation of a course when a given 
height is reached. 

Fig. 95. — Striking joints. 

Struck joint. 

4. Struck Joints. — ^For exposed brickwork, the struck joint 
is the fastest joint to make. It is more widely used than any 
other joint and is suitable for both outside and inside exposed 



walls. It is first made as a '^ rough-cut" joint and is then 
struck upwards with the edge of the trowel well towards its 
point, the handle of the trowel coming above the joint. It 
is made after the mortar has stiffened a little. The angle of 
this joint is such that it leaves no shadow and brings into 
rehef the top edges of the brick. As it is this edge that is 
laid 'Ho the line," it makes a neat-looking job. The brick- 
layer will do a better job if he strikes his joints Ughtly, as a 
shallow joint helps to conceal irregularities. Only end joints 

Fig. 97.— Weathered joint. 

should be struck with the face of the trowel and then only 
when working from the inside of the wall; otherwise the back 
of the trowel should be used, as the face of the trowel, being 
covered with mortar, will smear the face of the wall. Unex- 
posed wall surfaces which are to be waterproofed should have 
struck joints. 

5. Weathered Joints.— The weathered joint is the reverse 
of a struck joint and is supposed to shed water better. It is 
more difficult to make and, therefore, is more costly. It is 
formed with the handle of the trowel lower than the joint, 
the joint being struck downward with the edge of the blade. 



To keep a uniform slope on the face of the joint is difficult. 
The irregular surface thus formed, combined with the shadow 
of the brick above, shows up imperfections in the wall. 

6. Plain- or Rough-cut Joints.—The plain-cut joint is a 
joint flush with the face of the wall, formed by cutting off the 
excess mortar with the edge of the trowel. It is a rough joint 
used for walls that are to be afterwards plastered or otherwise 
covered up. 

7. Flush-cut Joints. — The flush-cut joint is similar to the 
rough-cut joint, but is formed more carefully. Very wide 

Fig. 98. — Flush cut joint. 

flush-cut joints ar^ commonly laid in mortar containing aggre- 
gate coarser than regular brick sand, to insure a stiffer mortar 
and to give a coarse texture. When brick of a coarse texture 
are used^ care must be taken in trimming the mortar squeezed 
beyond the face of the wall, as it may get into the rough 
scoring of the brick and cannot be easily removed. The 
mortar should not be touched with the trowel after trimming, 
as it will have a tendency to draw the cement to the surface of 
the joint and spoil the rough effect. If the mortar in a rough 
wide joint begins to sag away from the brick, tap it carefully 
back into place with the rough end grain of a piece of wood. 



8. Raked Joints. — The raked joint is first finished plain cut 
and is then raked out with a ''jointer" to the desired depth. 

Fig. 99. — Raking a joint. 








^^^^^^^^^4 1^^' 





"^ ~" 








'' i 




i:;; Turij 


Fig. 100.— Stripped joint. 

When a rough finish is desired, a wooden stick is sometimes 
used for raking. Various special jointers are made for raking 
a rough joint to proper depth. 



9. Stripped Joint. — In making a stripped joint, a strip of 
wood the thickness of the joint is laid at the front of the wall 
to the depth of the joint desired. The mortar is spread flush 

Fig. 101. — Forming stripped juiiit. Horizontal iuuim- m duui>iu-suctcher 
Flemish bond. Note "blind joint" between pairs of stretchers. 

Fig. 102. — Forming concave joint. 

with the top of the strip. The next course is then laid. 
After the mortar has set, the strips are removed. This type of 
joint costs a little more than a raked joint but makes a neater 
and cleaner job, as the joint is of even depth and thickness. 




10. Miscellaneous Tooled Joints. — Joints of various sec- 
tions are formed by first making a flush joint, afterwards 
running a jointing tool along the joint close to the top edge 
of the brick. For a beaded joint a straightedge may be used 

Fig. 103. — Concave joint. 

to guide the tool. Concavej convex, V and beaded joints are 
formed in this way. The vertical jointing should be done 
first. Under ordinary conditions it is best not to push the 
jointer deep enough into the mortar to show up the irregulari- 
ties of the joints. 


1. Definition. — Filling exposed joints with mortar after the 
wall is laid is called pointing. Sometimes, in laying new walls, 
exterior joints are purposely left only partially filled and in 
very old walls the exposed mortar occasionally weathers away 
to some extent. Pointing is necessary in both of these cases. 

2. Pointing Old Walls. — The surfaces to be pointed should 
be reasonably clean, the old mortar as rough as possible, and 
the wall well wetted down before pointing; followed by the 
immediate application of fresh mortar. 

3. Tuck Pointing. — Tuck pointing is the process either of 
first filling the joints smooth with the face of the brick and 
then rubbing down the entire surface of the wall with a soft 
brick, so that brick and joints are the same color, or of coloring 
the entire wall with a compound of copperas and the pigment 
required. Lime putty is then pressed on to the joints in 
straight lines, and with a jointer working to a straightedge 
with a beveled edge the edges are trimmed with a tool called a 
Frenchman, which usually consists of a table knife with the 
end of the blade turned up at right angles. The edge of the 
knife cuts the putty and the turned up end cuts off the super- 
fluous material, leaving a white joint 3^^ in. wide and I^'q in. 
thick on the face of the work. A half tuck consists of rubbing 
down or coloring the wall as with tuck pointing and making 
a similar raised false joint, little attempt being made to follow 
the real joints, the false joint often running across the face of 
the brick itself. Tuck pointing is fortunately done very 
rarely. From an artistic viewpoint the effect is not good. 





1. Methods.— To be truly efficient, the bricklayer should 
work with the fewest possible motions. This requires study 
upon his part to determine just which motions are unnecessary. 
A bricklayei:. may work twice as hard as he really needs to 
lay a given number of brick. Each motion should have a 
definite purpose and should accomplish a definite result. It 
is not only necessary to learn how to lay a brick correctly 
and to have the right quantity of mortar both under and 
against it, bul it is also essential to know how to do it the 
easiest way, without wasting energy. Every bricklayer will 
develop methods of his own for working to best advantage 
upon the job. The difference between workers in height, 
length of arm, strength, and natural quickness of action will 
influence the handling of the trowel and the laying of brick. 
Many systems have been devised for aiding the bricklayer in 
working to best advantage; none has been universally 

2. Using the Mortar Board.— All mortar boards should be 
wet down before mortar is placed upon them to prevent 
the wood from ab^rbing the moisture from the mortar, thus 
causing it to dry out too quickly. The mortar should be kept 
turned up in the middle of the board, leaving the outer edges 
clean. If it is spread out in a thin layer over the entire board, 
it will dry out quickly, be hard to spread, and will prevent 
the picking up of a trowelful. The mortar should be kept 
well tempered at all times, that is, of the proper working 
consistency. Have the mortar board placed where it is most 
convenient so that it may be reached with the shortest possible 
motion. Always pick up mortar from the outer edge of the 
mortar pile and from the part of the board nearest the worker. 




The board should be kept well supplied at all times. Some 
contractors find it economical to hire a mortar tender to keep 
the mortar tempered. 

Fig. 104. — The proper way to fill a mortar board. 

3. Holding the Trowel. — The trowel should be held firmly, 
yet not tightly, fully grasped with the right hand and con- 

FiG. 105. — Correct way of holding trowel. 


Handle between thumb and 

trolled by the muscles of the fingers, wrist, and arm, so that it 
may be rolled between the thumb and the forefinger to any 
desired position. The holding of the trowel is comparable 



to the holding of a razor. The thumb should not go around 
the handle but should rest on top of it, the first two fingers 
bearing most of the weight of the trowel. The shank and 
ferrule should be kept out of the mortar while working because 
the contact of the forefinger with the mortar will hinder the 
worker and cause sore fingers. Some bricklayers find it con- 
venient to hold the trowel between the third and the fourth 
fingers with the blade away from the body, and pick up brick 
with the thumb and first and second fingers when necessary. 

Fig. 106.- 

-Wrong way of holding trowel. 

The thumb should never encircle 

4. Picking Up Mortar. — Pick up a trowel full of mortar each 
time but do not overload it as this will cause the mortar to 
spill and make the scaffold and wall dirty. Take enough to 
bed from three to five brick at a time. Lean over only as far as 
is necessary in order to pick the mortar up with a practically 
straight arm. Lift the mortar in as straight a line as possible 
to the place where it is to be spread on the wall, and make the 
force of its lifting help in throwing it. Use a straight-arm 
swinging motion in picking up the mortar from the edge of the 
mortar pile, thus not spreading the mortar over the mortar 
board and causing it to dry out. Zigzag interrupted motions 
should be avoided; they waste time and strength. The 
young apprentice should not be too ambitious in the amount 


Fig. 107. — Proper way of picking up mortar. Note the full trowel. 

Fia. 108. — Ready to spread mortar. Arm is not held too rigidly. 



of mortar he attempts to throw at the start; throwing enough 
mortar for one brick is sufficient for the first attempts. Don't 
play with or roll the mortar before picking it up; it is waste 
motion and tires the worker unnecessarily. 

Fig. 109.— Starting to spread mortar. Arm is slightly bent and fingers 
begin to loosen as weight on trowel grows less. 

Fig. 110. — The mortar has been spread by a smooth swing of the arm, and the 
fingers have relaxed. Trowel is now held between thumb and forefinger. 

5. Spreading Mortar. — A skillful bricklayer is usually able 
to throw mortar for three to five brick at one time. If skill- 
fully thrown, little further spreading is necessary and should 
be accomplished in as few motions as possible. 



6. When spreading mortar, the wrist and the shoulder 
joint should be kept flexible so that the angle of the trowel 
may be kept constant throughout the swing of the arm. Do 

Fig. 111. — Furrowing mortar. 

Fig. 112. — Cutting off mortar. 

not work with a stiff, jerky motion but with a smooth sweep 
of the arm and trowel. 

7. For right-handed persons, spreading is usually done 
from left to right. All joints should be of the same thickness 
except for irregularities in the brick itself. The bricklayer 
should learn to judge the thickness of bed necessary for the 


width of the joint that he is to make and according to the type 
of vertical joint he is to use, whether shoved, grouted, open, or 
buttered. Should he find much tapping necessary due to his 
mortar being stiff, rather than attempt too much tapping in 
order to bring his brick down to the line the mortar may be 
leveled by a wavy motion of the wrist known as "furrowing." 
8. Cutting Off Mortar. — After spreading the mortar, it 
should be cut with the edge of the trowel even with the face 

Fig. 113. — Tapping brick into place. 

of the wall before the brick is laid so that the mortar will not 
run down the face of the brickwork. After the brick is bedded, 
the mortar is again cut off and used for buttering the next end 
joint. In returning surplus mortar to the board, throw it to 
the back of the mortar board so that the tender may turn it 
over or retemper it if necessary; a lump of mortar stiffer than 
the rest will delay the worker. 

9. Wetting Brick.— The setting of mortar depends to a large 
degree upon the amount of water contained in it, dry brick 
will absorb this moisture before the mortar has set. It is 
therefore necessary to wet the brick before laying them. 



Wetting the brick also cleanses them of dust and dirt, thus 
giving a better surface for the mortar. In damp weather this 
wetting is unnecessary. In freezing weather it should never 
be done, as the water will form a film of ice upon the surface 
of the brick, preventing the mortar from penetrating into the 
pores and securing a hold. Too much wetting is to be avoided, 
as the water, diluting the mortar, will cause the brick to slip 
on the bed, preventing a good mechanical job and allowing the 
soft mortar to run down the face of the wall, ruining its appear- 
ance. When a brick slips, do not attempt to hammer it back 
into place until the mortar becomes stiffer, as it will make the 
mortar even softer and throw the courses out of line. Imper- 
vious brick such as paving brick should never be wet for they 
will absorb little moisture. Water hinders the mortar from 
getting a hold upon such brick. 

10. Picking Up Brick. — ^Very few brick are exactly alike on 
all surfaces. The handling, molding, or cutting of the clay, 
stacking it in the kiln, and the firing process usually produce a 
brick with one surface better suited to laying to the weather 
than the other. This surface is usually considered to be the 
face of the brick, and the surface that comes out the least 
perfect due to faults of manufacture is con^iclered to be the 
'^cull" surface of the brick, although some architects prefer 
the cull side be exposed in certain classes of work. ' Brickwork 
so laid has a rough and artistic appearance. With face brick, 
the face surface is usually self-evident, due*to its special 

11. Under ordinary conditions the harder surface of the 
brick should be laid to the weather. A brick with a damaged 
face may frequently be used as a header when *the end is not 

12. In lifting a brick from a scaffold, it is usually grasped 
with the left hand with the thumb upon one side and the 
fingers upon the other, the bending point of the fingers coming 
at the second joint and of the thumb at the first joint. The 
nearest brick on the scaffold should always be picked up first. 
Plenty of brick should be available, neatly piled in a convenient 
location, leaving the bricklayer ample foot room in order that 



he may work to best advantage. The brick tender's time is 
less valuable than that of the bricklayer. He should not be 
allowed to dump his brick upon the scaffold in such a way that 
they break, chip, or scatter. Broken brick or bats should be 
used on the job wherever possible. 

13. Laying Brick. — The ''spreading mortar/' ''pick and dip,'' 
and ''buttering" methods of laying brick should all be learned 
by the apprentice. The choice of method is always deter- 
mined by the iiature of the job. 

Fig. 114. — A neat scaffold. 

14. Spreading or Stringing Mortar Method. — For this 
method a large trowel is used and enough mortar is spread on 
the wall at one time to lay from three to five brick. In this 
case, the brick will be picked up after the mortar has been 
spread on the wall. If the end joints are open or grouted, two 
brick may be lifted, one in each hand, brought together end 
to end while in passage from the scaffold to the wall, and laid 
at one time. If the joint is a shoved joint, they may be bedded 
in the mortar in different tiers at the same time. In laying 




the outside tier, a brick at a time is shoved into place. The 
bricklayer frequently lifts several brick at a time, placing them 
upon the backing until needed when working on the face of the 
wall. This is sometimes called *' hacking" When working 
upon the backing, he places them upon the face tier. 

15. Pick and Dip Method. — By this method the brick and 
mortar are picked up at the same time. The mortar is in a 
tub or mortar box. In reaching for mortar and brick at the 
same time, the location of the mortar can be spotted while 
moving down to it, but to pick up the brick quickly requires 
the attention of the eye, the mortar being picked up by the 

16. Buttering Method.— It used to be the custom a few 
years ago to face buildings with pressed brick — each brick 
mechanically perfect, with absolutely square edges, and every 
brick matching perfectly in color- — no variation whatever being 
allowed. Such brick were generally set with a very thin joint, 
known as a "buttered " joint. This joint is formed by holding 
the brick to be laid in the left hand, and buttering it with the 
trowel held in the right hand. The mortar is gathered on 
the bottom of the trowel, and the brick is buttered all around the 
four sides of its bed and of that vertical side wihich will after- 
ward be in contact with the brick previously laid. The brick 
with the mortar adhering, to it is then shoved into place. 
This is a slow method of laying brick, only employed where the 
joints are very thin. 

17. Shoved Joints. — In making a shoved jomt, a bed of 
mortar is spread, thicker than the joint will be when finished. 
In laying the brick, it is pressed into this bed, downward and 
toward the brick which it is to join. The soft mortar will rise 
and fill the vertical joints. Shoved joints are frequently 
specified for solid walls and piers. In cases where the wall will 
be exposed to the weather, the outer tier should always be laid 
with shoved joints. 

18. Grouted Joints. — Grouting is a method of filling all the 
vertical joints in a wall with thin mortar, or grout. The outer 
and inner tiers are first laid with shoved joints. The core of 
the wall is bedded in a full bed of mortar but the vertical joints 



are filled after the bricks in the course are laid, the thickness 
of a joint apart, by grouting. The quickest way to grout brick- 
work is to take a dipper of water with the left hand and a trowel 
full of mortar with the right, just enough water being added to 
thin the mortar after it has been spread, and the mixture being 
worked in between the joints with the trowel until the joints 
are completely filled. 

Fig. 115. — Building a wall by the grouting method. Inner and outer tiers 
are first laid with shoved joints. 

19. Slushed Joints.— In slushed joints the mortar is spread 
upon the wall as in grouting but is thin enough to run down 
into and fill the vertical joints without the addition of water. 
The inside tier and the core of a wall over 8 in. thick are laid 
upon a full bed of mortar, the brick being placed the width of a 
joint apart, and all joints slushed. The brick in the outer tier 
are shoved. Never slush up a wall when paving brick is used, 
as the soft mortar will cause the brick to settle, due to its 
excessive weight and its impervious nature. 

20. Open Joints. — In many cases where work is above grade 
the wall is laid with a full bed of mortar with the vertical joints 



in the backing left open, the joints in the outer tier being 
shoved. In such cases, frequent header course with full joints 
should be laid. It is claimed that a wall of this type is prac- 
tically as strong as any other wall. 

21. Dry Joints. — In some jobs every sixth course upon the 
interior of the wall is laid without mortar. A lath is sometimes 
inserted. This weakens the wall but permits the nailing of 
furring, door frames, etc. into the dry joint. This is not good 
practice and in many cities would not be allowed under the 
building code. 

22. Filled Joints. — For all party, fire' and division walls 
carrying heavy loads the brickwork should be laid solid with 
all joints full of mortar. In building chimneys, it is essential 
that the ends of the flue tile, the space between the flue tile 
and the surrounding brickwork, and the joints in the surround- 
ing brickwork itself must be full of mortar. 

23. Roll.— As the top edge of the brick is always laid to 
the Mne, it is this edge which should be the most prominent 
upon the face of the wall so that one looking up from the 
ground will see the upper edges projecting slightly beyond the 
lower edges of the brick, forming a series of parallel lines for 
each course. This tends to hide any irregulaitties on the face 
of the brick, giving the entire wall the appearance of careful 
and accurate workmanship. In order to accomplish this,Mt 
is necessary to give the brick a slight '^roll,'' that is, to slope 
the brick so as to bring the bottom edge slightly in from the 
line of the wall. 

24. In giving a roll to their work, bricklayers some- 
times through carelessness throw the wall out of plumb, 
causing the entire wall to slope in as it goes* up. This is 
called ''battering." The opposite of this, or having the wall 
slope outwards as it goes up, is known as ''overhang." 

25. Some brick are wider upon one side than the other, 
due to the slight batter of the vertical surfaces of the molds 
to permit the removal of the brick. In this case, the brick 
may be laid flat, if the wider side is laid at the top, automati- 
cally producing the desired result. Other brick have both the 
face and the cull surfaces parallel but sloping at a slight angle 



from the sides. The brick may be laid flat but with the face 
so placed that the upper edge projects beyond the lower edge. 

26. Some bricklayers claim that they can tell by the feel of 
the brick the proper side to select for the top and turn the brick 
to the right position while it is in motion from the scaffold to 
the wall, doing this almost unconsciously from practice. 

27. Setting the Line. — In order to have a neat job, the 
horizontal joints should be parallel to each other. This is 
accomplished by laying the outside tier of each course of 
brick to the line. The line should be as fine as is obtainable of 
strong cord of the best grade. It should be stretched tightly 
between the ct)rners and fastened by wire iiails, flattened at 
the end when used with close joints so that they will fit in the 
vertical joints of the face of the walj,- or a square nail without 
too sharp an edge, the latter being more practical than a wire 
nail under mosj conditions, particularly if used on the pull 
end of the fine. If the line is so long that there is danger of 
its sagging, it must be held up in the center by a ^Hrig" 
(Fig. 32, p. 45), which should never be made fast to the line but 
should be in the form of a loop so that the line may be drawn 
through it with ease. A broken line should be spliced rather 
than knotted, as the knot throws it out from the wall, and 
moreover the loose ends of the knot have an aggravating way 
of getting into the mortar. Should a knot be necessary, it 
should be as small as possible. A new line will save much 
time and temper. The corners or leads are built up first by 
the most experienced bricklayers and carefully plumbed by 
the use of the spirit fevel and plumb rule. The line should be 
stretched between these two corners and raised only one 
course at a time. Leads are usually not carried more than a 
header ahead of the work, otherwise the wall is liable to be 
irregular. While the courses are being laid between headers, 
the leads may be carried up to the next header course. The 
trig should not be carried more than two courses over the line 
and should be sighted both for height and for ''in and out'' 
with the corner courses. Care must be taken to fasten the 
line to courses of the same height at the corners, otherwise^a 
slope or ''hog'' will result in the courses. 



28. Laying to the Line. — Brick should never be laid hard to 
the Hne, that is, against it, but the top edge of the brick should 
come approximately }i in. behind it. ''Crowding the Hne'* 

Fig. 116. — Fingers being raised to avoid touching the line. 

throws the line out of position, tending to make a bulging 
wall and preventing the workers from doing §, good job. In 

Fig. 117. — Brick properly laid to the line. 

spreading the mortar the trowel should not touch the line. 
In laying the brick, as the fingers come toward the line, a 
habit should be formed of lifting them so that they will co'me 


up as the brick goes down. If the thumb comes near the line^ 
the thumb should be Hfted as the brick goes down. A brick 
should be squeezed to the line and not hammered into place 
with the trowel. 

29. Raising a Corner Lead. — As the corner, or lead, is the 
first portion of the wall to be laid, it will determine the width 
of the mortar joint both horizontally and vertically, for the 
rest of the wall. Trial courses are frequently laid without 
mortar to secure correct measurements. The architect's 
drawings and specifications will usually define the length 
of the wall, the bond and the joint. A slight variation in 
the width of an end joint will enable the bricklayer to make 
his bonds come out right, thus making closers unnecessary 
except those required at corners to complete the bond. The 
number of courses necessary to come to sill height, window 
head height, story height, or any other height are sometimes 
marked ofi upon the edge of a length of 1- by 2-in. strip. This 
is frequently called a ''story pole.'' The spirit level should 
be used for leveling the wall horizontally and as a straight 
edge on the face of the wall. After the first few courses are 
laid the wall may be plumbed vertically. The lead should 
not, as a rule, be extended too far (tailed out) from the corner. 
Four feet is a reasonable distance. The man on the corner 
should have a start upon the other bricklayers and may 
back up his part of the wall while the men on the wall are 
building up to him. He should measure his courses frequently 
in order to secure the correct thickness of joint. When a 
course does not come out right, it is sometimes better to use 
two three-quarter brick than a whole brick as it will not be so 
evident. If a closer is necessary, a bat and a three-quarter 
may be used. This condition will not arise if the job is laid 
out right at the start, if the brick has not varied too much in 
size, and if the bricklayer has not varied his joint too much. 

30. Sighting. — The bricklayer ''sights" with his eye to get 
his corners plumb and corrects his errors by means of a plumb 
rule. The first few courses must be plumbed by the use of the 
plumb rule in order to have some guide for sighting the courses 
to follow. Only one face of the wall should be sighted at a 




time. If both faces of the wall are plumb the corner will of 
necessity be plumb. Careful sighting will prevent many a 
poor job. This applies to the tops of window frames and the 
tops of sills and piers. The habit of sighting will be acquired 
by the bricklayer through practice. 

31. In bricklaying, as in but few other crafts, the develop- 
ment of cleverness and skill in the use of the eye in accurately 
estimating spaces and distances and the habit of doing the 
job right the first time are essentials of good workmanship; 
and will distinguish the first-class craftsman whose work will 
be a source of just pride to himself and pleasure to all who will 
afterward view the building. 

Fig. 1 18. — Plumbing a corner. 

32. Plumbing a Corner.— In using a plumb rule for plumb- 
ing a corner, both sides of the corner must be plumbed, the 
rule held vertically against the wall close to the corner itself, 
and used in this manner on both sides of the wall. 

33. Cutting and Clipping Brick.— The bricklayer's chisel, 
bolster, or set, is necessary to cut^brick to an exact line. If 
the edge is ground to approximately 60 deg. with the straight 
side, the break will come in line with the straight side of the 



chisel. If the chisel is tilted a little away from the one cutting, 
the break will slope slightly in. This will give the brick just 
enough clearance to prevent the necessity of having to trim 
the brick further. When using the bolster, it should be held 
loosely in the left hand to prevent skinning the hand. The 
straight side of the bolster should face the part of the brick to 
be saved, as well as facing the worker doing cutting. One 
blow of the hammer should be sufficient to cut the brick. 
With hard -brick, the brick may be fractured roughly by 

Fig. 119. — Cutting brick with bolster. 

a blow with the head of the hammer, leaving sufficient brick 
for accurate cutting with the set. If the set does not break 
the brick, a light tap with the head of the hammer upon the 
side where the fracture will come will split the brick. In 
holding the brick set with the left hand, form the habit of push- 
ing the hand and set quickly away from the brick at the instant 
of the blow so that when the brick fractures, the hand will 
not be hurt. 

34. For ordinary work, the bricklayer's hammer may be 
used for cutting and clipping brick, the brick to be held in the 

Bi .. HflV ' I t ' jn.* . ■■{ ■ «* ML ■ 



left hand while the hammer is held in the right. The head 
should always be used for making the break and the chisel 
peen used for cutting off the irregular places left at the fracture. 

Fig. 120. — Cutting off rough edges with chisel peen. 

In using the hammer for cutting, it is tilted just enough for 
the sharp edge of the head of the hammer to hit the brick. 

Fig. 121. — Protecting work for the night. 

When the brick is not too hard it may be split by a sharp blow 
with the side of the trowel. Extremely hard brick is Hable 
to break the trowel. 


35. Covering the Wall. — Before quitting for the night the 
exposed courses should be covered with boards projecting 
1 to 2 in. from the face of the wall to protect them from rain, 
sleet, or snow. If they are to be left exposed for a long time, 
they should be covered with tar paper or with a tarpaulin. 
Boards should have brick piled on them to keep them from 
blowing away, or they may have short vertical pieces of board 
nailed to them and allowed to hang pendulum-wise on each 
side of the wall. 

36. Keeping a Clean Wall. — Keep the wall clean. Never 
leave a job without cleaning up mortar ends. Soft mortar 
is more easily, removed than hard mortar. 

37. Laying Fire Brick.— The chief factor in laying fire 
brick where they will be exposed to, extreme heat, as in lining 
furnaces, is to have close joints. They should be kept in a 
dry place up to the time they are needed. The brick should 
be dipped in a 'mortar made of fire clay and water so that the 
bottom surface and the sides will be covered, and tapped 
firmly into place with a bricklayer's hammer. The trowel 
is not used except for pointing. The brick should fit as 
tightly as if the fire clay were not there and the brick were 
simply stacked. In cutting fire brick always make perfect 
cuts whether the cut will be visible or not. Perfect joints are 
necessary to prevent the flame from creeping through. Never 
subject the work to heat until the job is thoroughly dry. The 
best grade of fire clay should be used and is sometimes made 
by regrinding used fire brick. A mortar known as ganister 
is made by mixing an aggregate of ground fire brick with fire 
clay in order to give it body. This is used largely for patch 
work and is not considered good practice for new work. 
Special high-temperature cements are manufactured and are 
sometimes used for plastering the inside of the furnace. 

38. No mortar is used for laying silica brick. Care is taken 
to fit the brick so that the joints will fuse together and the 
bond used is such that no end joint opening extends completely 
through the wall. 

39. A slight amount of silica sand is used to fill all irregu- 
larities between the brick. Silica brick should never be wet. 



40. In laying fire brick a thin wedge of brick is known as a 
'^feather edge"; a brick cut in two with a break parallel to 
the side is called a "split"; and a brick cut lengthwise parallel 
to the face is called a "sope," the latter being called a "queen 
closer" in ordinary brickwork. End wedges and side arches 
are special fire brick for arch work. A bond frequently used 
in laying fire brick is made up of five courses of headers with 
one of stretchers. The fire brick wall should be at least 8 in. 
thick wherever the flame strikes it except in places where there 
is no great heat. 

41. Laying Impervious Brick in a WedV. — Paving brick are 
sometimes used in a wall but, due to their greater weight, tend 
to squeeze out a slow-setting, soft mortar. It is therefore 
necessary to use care in laying them and to use cement or 
cement-lime mortar. As they are practically impervious, 
they do not adhere to the mortar readily. For this reason the 
brick should never be wet at the time of laying. This is true 
of any impervious brick. Do not tip or move an impervious 
brick after laying, as this may soften the mortar and throw the 
work out of plumb. 




1. Foundations and Footings. — The foundation of a build- 
ing includes all those parts which are below the superstructure 
and grade. The first essential of a good foundation is solid 
ground. The excavation should be carried to a depth where 
the ground is firm enough to bear the weight of the footing. 

Fig. f 2 2. —Footings with brick laid flat. 

Every footing should be below the frost line or it will be heaved 
up in winter by the expansion of the moisture in the ground 
when it freezes. The first courses are known as the footing of 
the building and should be of such width that the soil beneath 
should not be required to carry a load in excess of its capacity. 
It is recommended by The Common Brick Manufacturers' 
Association that projecting courses of footings be laid with 
brick on edge, as courses laid in this manner are much stronger 
than courses laid fiat. The common practice, however, has 




been to lay the brick flat. Two inches should be the maximum 
projection of one course beyond the one immediately above it. 
Where the projection is one course deep, all the brick forming 
the projection should be headers. If two courses deep, the top 
course should be all headers and the lower one stretchers. If 
the footings are constructed of brick laid flat, the first two 
courses should be of the same width and each succeeding course 

\k ' f'% 



- m. 


- y^ --''^ 

I 4 



123. — Twelve inch Ideal foundation wall of apartment house, on footings 
laid with brick on edge. 

should be decreased on both sides by a distance of 2 in. until 
the width of the wall is reached. All bed joints should be 
filled with mortar. To produce the most economical type of 
brick footing for buildings carrying only moderate loads, 
mortar is sometimes used in the bed joints only, the brick 
being rapidly laid upon the full bed joint with no mortar 
between them. In many buildings a concrete footing is poured 



in an excavated trench, the bricklayer starting the wall at its 
final thickness directly from the concrete. 

2. Residences with 12-in. basement walls, when built on 
solid ground, usually need no footings, the 12-in.-wide bearing 
being sufficient to support the load. In locations where stone 
is plentiful the footings and foundation walls are sometimes 
built of this material. 

3. Local building ordinances specify the minimum thickness 
of walls which may be used for various types of construction. 
Many building ordinances require walls of excessive thickness 
for residences. A model building code has been published by 
the United States Government.^ This code defines the mini- 
mum thickness of brick residence walls as follows : Where such 
walls are not over 30 ft. high above the first floor line, the 
basement wall may safely be 12 in. thick and the wall above 
8 in. thick. Fj^ve feet additional height is allowed for gables. 

4. Underpinning. — The installing'J^^of supporting masonry 
under a wall already built, while the old wall is temporarily 
supported on jacks or ^* needles" of steel or timber, is called 
underpinning. The new brickwork should meet the old 
brickwork and the last course should be wedged in so tightly 
that there will be no settling of the old wall. Thin sheets 
of slate or steel wedges are frequently used as ''shims.'' It is 
a safer practice to lay the last course with brick cut wedge 
shape, top and bottom, the cavity being filled with mortar, 
and the brick driven home in such a manner that the mortar 
is forced out around it. 

5. Moisture -proofing Walls. — There are several methods 
of making basement walls moisture-proof. One method is 
to plaster the outer surface of the wall with a mixture of one 
of cement to two of coarse sand, and coating the whole with 
asphalt after the cement has set. The asphalt is often applied 
directly to the brick, the wall being laid preferably with struck 

1 ''Recommended Minimum Requirements for Small House Construc- 
tion." Sent for 15 cents in coin or money order (not stamps) upon 
application to the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing 
Office, Washington, D. C. A code for larger buildings is now being 



„,_ TiLEPgArM 

r • 2"DEt> Of ^MOi-lCTJP' 




Plate IV. 








Plate V. 








Plate VI. 





Plate VII. 



joirits. Tar is sometimes substituted for asphalt but has a 
tendency to become brittle and chip off. A mixture consisting 
of one part pitch to three parts of tar is frequently used as 
it is less expensive than a pure asphalt coating and will adhere 
to the wall. In very wet soils alternate layers of felt and hot 
asphalt called membrane waterproofing are built up on the 
outside of the wall and a layer of asphalt roofing is inserted 
between courses just above grade to avoid all possibility of 
moisture creeping up the wall. In some dry soils waterproof- 
ing is not necessary if tile drains are properly laid about the 

6. Piers. — A pier is an isolated support, constructed of 
masonry, usually supporting an arch, beam, or steel girder. 
The size and the construction of piers will be determined by 
the nature of the job, its height, the load to be carried, and 
local building ordinances. Tests have proved that hollow 
piers built of brick on edge will support great loads (see ^' Brick 
— How to Build and Estimate"). 

7. Pilaster.— Architecturally, a pilaster is a flat vertical 
column, structurally a part of or attached to the face of a 
wall, and is used either behind a column or independently. 
In trade practice a pilaster is any vertical thickening of the 
wall, structurally resembling a portion of a pier, serving as a 
reinforcement or support at any required point. 

8. Party and Fire Walls. — A wall separating two buildings 
owned by different people is called a party wall. A vertical 
wall dividing a building into two or more isolated sections is 
called a fire wall. These walls should always be of solid 
masonry and should be of sufficient thickness to withstand the 
complete destruction by fire of the contents of the property 
on either or both sides of the wall without collapsing from the 
action of the fire, water, or wreckage. It is desirable that the 
wall be thick enough to prevent fire spread by the transmission 
of heat through the wall. 

9. Solid brick party walls, because of the small units used in 
their construction, make the only practical wall for the subse- 
quent insertion of new joists, girders, rafters, etc. and the most 


convenient wall for any changes, such as openings, new floor 
levels, or rebuilding on one side of the wall. 

10. Toothing. — In leaving a section of brickwork so that 
subsequent work can be bonded into it, the end is finished 
in what is known as ^'toothing.'' Toothing is a vertical 
break in the wall but with alternate courses left projecting a 
sufficient distance to assure good bond with the portion to be 
afterward built, this end thus presenting a toothlike appear- 

~ M n i ^ 1 i c ■■ __ 













Fig. 124.— Toothing. 


ance. Toothing should be avoided wherever possible; it is 
difficult to construct the new portion so that the whole wall, 
including the old and new portions, will act as a unit in resisting 
longitudinal stresses. There is generally a weak point at 
the toothing. It is very seldom that the joint at which the 
toothing conies is not evident. Strap iron can be used to 
help in securing a better bond as described under '* Blocking." 
11. Filling Toothings. — The best way to fill toothing is to 
cut the brick to a wedge shape by slightly trimming the upper 



and lower surfaces so that the face of the stretcher is left 
unimpaired, the narrowest point of the wedge being the back 
corner of the brick at the end to be driven home. The hole 










11 ^ 1 ^1 II I I \r=^ 


31 \c 






31 IC 

Fig. 125-— Racking. 

Fig. 126.— The wall in the foreground has been "racked." 

should first be wet and plastered with mortar on all sides. 
Enough mortar should be placed in the hole to ooze out about 
the joint when the brick is driven into place. A quicker job 


may be made by not cutting the brick and by buttering the 
joint. This is not considered such good practice as it is hard 
completely to fill the joint with mortar. 

12. Racking. — In raising a corner^ the courses end in a 
series of steps in order that the men on the wall may tie their 
courses to it in the easiest manner. In other words, each 
course on the wall will be shorter than the course below it. 

13. Blocking.— Blocking is a method of finishing a wall so 
that subsequent work can be bonded into it by leaving alter- 
nate projecting blocks of several 
courses of brick. Tying new work 
to blocking makes a much stronger 
and better job than toothing. To 
preserve the continuity of the bond, 
the outer tier may be toothed from the 
blocks. Ties consisting of strap iron 
laid in every fourth or fifth course, 
and bedded about 2 ft. into the por- 
tion first built with about 2 ft. left 
projecting are frequently used to help 
the bond. This is a good method in 
any case^ particularly valuable when 
the two walls to be joined are con- 
structed of courses of varying heights. 

14. Adding to the Thickness of a 
Wall. — A common method of increas- 
ing the thickness of an existing wall 
is to cut out pocke'ts in the old wall 
every 4 ft. to the depth of one brick 
for a space equal to the distance between two header courses 
in height and about 3 ft. long. The hole should be tapered 
in so that brick will dovetail into the wall. The portion of 
the new wall adjoining this space should consist entirely of 
headers with full joints wedged carefully into place. All 
joints should be full of mortar. 

15. A cheaper method of adding to the thickness of a wall 
is to hold the new wall to the old one by steel bolts with large 
washers against both the outside and the inside walls. Adding 

_JI II II 1 





II II II .11 II , 1 

II II 1 

Jl II II 1 











ziacnrni ii 



Z^l II II 

11 h II 




Fig. 127.— Blocking. 



to the thickness of a wall where the new part is to carry any 
load is questionable practice; it is difficult to construct a 
foundation enabling the new part to share its portion of the 

16. Laying Brick against the Wall of Another Building. — 
In laying brick against an adjoining building, make as neat 

Fig, 128.— Adding to the thickness of an existing wall. 

a job as possible on the face of the wall although it is concealed. 
The adjoining building may be torn down and the work 
exposed. Never let the wall go over the property line; for if 
the adjoining owner should discover it, the owner of the build- 
ing upon which the worker is engaged might be caused much 
trouble and expense. 


17. Fireproof Floors. — For fireproof floors, arches con- 
structed of brick laid on edge between steel I beams and filled 
in with concrete to level up for the floor above make a strong 
and permanent job. The I beams are held together by tie 
rods. I beams should be fireproofed on the bottom flange. 




"TVPE (b) pl^ce PRXTreffioN 

Fig. 129. — Brick floor-arch. 

BRICK ori 

The brick are dry and are laid on centers so that they touch 
at the soffit, and the joints grouted in. The floor is then 
built up flush on top with concrete over which a wooden floor 
may be laid on sleepers. 

18. Brick Column Protection. — Steel columns may be 
protected from fire by being enclosed in brick, A 5-hr. 
protection rating has been given to a 
4-in. thickness of brick used for this 
purpose. A light porous brick, which 
it is believed will give equally efficient 
protection, has recently been placed 
upon the market. 

19. Elevator and Stairway In- 
closures. — Elevators^ stairways, and 
other openings extending vertically 
through the building should be in- 
closed by a brick wall which should 
extend above the roof of the building. 

20. Pipes and Chases.^ — Openings 
such as chimney flues and chases 
should be provided as the wall goes up. Chases are open- 
ings in the wall left for water pipes, electrical and telephone 
conduits, gas pipes, and other purposes. Conduits are fre- 
quently built within the wall as it is erected. Soil pipes not 
over 4 in. in diameter may be provided for by a 43^^-in. chase 
in 8-in. interior walls only. Provision for the 6-in. hubs may 


130. — Brick column 



be made by chipping a place out of the wall at the time the 
plumber is ''roughing in/' Other smaller pipes may be run 
through the same chase wherever it is convenient. Chases are 
sometimes covered by metal lath and plastered. Where access 
to pipes is desirable, wood or metal panels are sometimes 
placed in front of the pipe spaces. 

21. Joist Supports. — When wooden joists are tightly 
inclosed in mortar, dry rot frequently results. By making 
the openings in the wall slightly larger than the joists and thus 
allowing a slight circulation of air^ this may be avoided. The 
shrinkage of the joist frequently is sufficient to allow ample 
ventilation but it is safer to keep the mortar away from the 
wood. The ends of the joists should be fire cut, that is, cut 
at an angle that will make the joists longer at the bottom than 
at the top. This will allow the joists to fall from the wall in 
case of fire, thus preventing further damage to the masonry. 
The width of the horizontal joints should be so regulated that 
the brick supporting the joists will be at the correct level. 
Joists, girders, and other bearing members should ordinarily 
bear directly on the brick unless the load they transmit is 
greater than the supporting brickwork can safely bear without 
crushing. In the latter case, cast-iron plates t)r other means 
must be taken to distribute the load upon a suflScient area of 
brickwork. Thin wedges, called ''shims'' for correcting irreg- 
ularities in the level of the supporting brickwork and keeping 
the joists to the right level are sometimes used. Wooden 
shims should never be used as they will shrink. Should shims 
be necessary, thin pieces of roofing slate should be used, as 
they will neither crush nor shrink. With careful workman- 
ship shims should not be necessary. 

22. Anchors. — Each community has its building ordinance 
which provides where anchoring is necessary. Under some 
conditions, it is desirable to anchor roof plates and floor joists 
to the wall. Roof plate anchors are more commonly required 
than joist anchors, however, due to the amount of wind stress 
to which the roof is subjected. The anchor sometimes con- 
sists of a half-inch bolt with a large washer on the head built 
into the wall for several courses before the top is reached. The 


Fig. 132. — A commonly used type of joist anchor. 



bolt comes up through the plate which is fastened down by a 
nut over a washer. 

23. Joist anchors, which should be fastened near the bottom 
of the joists, consist of metal straps fastened to the sides of 
the joists and bent about steel rods imbedded in the wall. 
Some anchors are made of metal straps in the form of a T or L. 
Anchors should come as near to the outside face of the brick 
wall as possible. 

24. The Jamb. — The vertical side of an opening, such as a 
door or window opening, is called a jamb. The jamb should 
be carefully plumbed at the ends as well as on the face, to 
prevent a ragged appearance. 

Fig. 133. — Laying a brick sill. 

25. Window Sills.— The window sill is the part of the wall 
supporting the lower edge of the frame and may be a brick 
rowlock or stone, terra cotta, or cast cement. If the sill has 
lugs, these should be of such thickness that they will Kne up 
with the brick courses. In all cases the sill is sloped to the 
front so as to shed water. With brick the slope is usually 
about 2 in. to the foot. Because it must withstand severe 
weathering, it is best to lay the sill in 1 : 2 cement mortar with 
flush buttered joints. Sills should be carefully lined up to 
secure an even bed for the frame and for good appearance. 


Brick sills will look best if they are no wider than the opening 
in which they are laid and if each brick is carefully selected so 
as to be of the same size at the exposed end. They should 
project from the face of the wall from 1 to 2 in. so that water will 
drip clear of the wall beneath. One-piece sills, especially 
those with lugs, are set in mortar at the ends only, to protect 
them from breaking, due to any irregular settling of the build- 
ing. Short slip sills are sometimes laid on a solid bed. All 
sills should be carefully laid and the outer edge should be 
parallel to the face of the wall. Sills are sometimes laid of 
brick without slope and the slope given by a layer of cement. 
This is not a good method, as in time the cement breaks loose 
from the brick. ^ , 

26. Door Snis.— Door sills should be laid by methods simi- 
lar to those described under window sills. When brick are 
used, they should be hard-burned to withstand the wear and 
should have "a slope of approximately % in. to the foot. 

27. Setting Door and Window Frames.— Wood window and 
door frames for brick walls have a staff bead, or ''brick mold," 
to cover the joint between frame and brick. Standard wood 
double-hung window frames for brick walls have the window 
weights boxed in. A strip of wood or metal is often nailed 
to the side and the head of a door or casement frame to form a 
wind stop, so that the shrinking of the frame will not allow the 
wind to blow straight through from the outside. Some form 
of wind stop should always be used. Frame sizes and 
dimensions are standardized to some extent but special sizes 
are just as frequently used. It is easy to use frames of any 
desired height with brickwork, the small units and the possi- 
bility of varying the width of the joints making brickwork 
dimensions adjustable to fit any case. The carpenter is 
usually responsible for the setting, leveling, and plumbing of 
frames; but the bricklayer should check them himself and be 
sure they are plumb and correctly placed. Frames should be 
lined up with the face of the wall and set back far enough to 
allow a 4-in. or an 8- or 12-in. bonded jamb, with proper clear- 
ance, otherwise the bricklayer will be obhged to cut every 
course against the frame, thus wasting time and labor. 



28. In the basement and upon the first floor the frames are 
sometimes braced by boards nailed to stakes in the ground 
outside of the building. Usually a group of frames is braced 
by horizontal braces attached to an upright cleated to the floor, 
the braces being placed above the level of the scaffold so as not 
to interfere with its placing. For this reason, frames should 
not be braced diagonally to the floor. Brick piled upon the 

Fig. 134.- 

"Method of bracing window frames to allow r(X>m for scaffold 
beneath braces. 

bottom of the frame help to steady it. For outside walls the 
frames should always be set in a bed of mortar before the wall 
has risen beyond the level of the sill and the joint slushed full. 
It is often necessary to make the frame more rigid by tem- 
porarily bracing it diagonally. To prevent them from being 
marred and soiled by the workers, wood frames occurring in 
interior walls are seldom set until the wall is up. Steel frames 


have a flange which is usually backed up against the edge of 
the jamb and held in place by the backing being laid against 
it. Steel frames should always be built into place to make a 
neat job. 

29. Caulking Frames.— In first-class work the brick mold 
comes loosely tacked to the window or door frame and is 
afterwards removed and the joint completely filled with oakum 

Alternate method of fire-stopping. 

with a hammer and dull chisel. This operation is known as 
caulking. The brick mold is nailed back in place by the 
carpenter. Caulking is sometimes done by the bricklayer, 
although more frequently by the carpenter. Frames are 
sometimes pointed with mortar in lower cost work. 

30. Fire Stops.— Devices for preventing the spreading of 
fire from floor to floor are called fire stops. Where the wall is 
of uniform thickness, above and below the joists, the wall may 



be ''corbeled out" for a number of courses equal to the depth 
of the joist and the width of the furring. This seals the furring 
space between the wall and the plaster and prevents a draft 
from carrying the fire from floor to floor. This has the dis- 
advantage, however, of bringing the masonry into contact 
with the plaster at this point which partly defeats the moisture- 
proofing objective in using furring. It is believed that equally 

Fig. 136. — Four inch bearing partition. 

satisfactory results may be obtained by using horizontal strips 
of furring above and below the joists (see booklet on "Fire- 
stopping/' issued by the National Lumber Manufacturers' 
Association, Transportation Bldg., Washington, D. C.) 
(Fig. 135). Where walls are not furred, this is unnecessary. 
For walls decreasing in size from a thicker to a thinner wall, 
the beams should be filled to the floor level with brick laid 
in mortar to the thickness of the wall beneath. A 4-in. tier of 
brick may be carried up between the rafters over the roof 


plates to the sheathing on the roof. This makes a warmer 
house and acts as a wind stop. 

31. Four-inch Brick Walls. — Four-inch brick partitions will 
bear greater loads than partitions of studs and have fire- 
resisting qualities as well. When started above the floor of 
the basement, these may be supported upon steel joists. 
Four-inch brick walls are worthy of wider use (see ''Brick — ■ 
How to Build and Estimate'')- 

Fig. 137. — Ordinary method of furring a brick wall. 

32. N egging. — Th^ filling in of the spaces between studding 
or between half -timber with brick is called ''nogging'' and 
was a common practice in colonial construction. This device 
is sometimes used as a fire stop between studs. Its efficiency is 
questionable, because the wood studs form the weak points. 

33. Furring and Its Support.- — Plaster in some dry climates 
may be applied directly to the inside of the solid wall. In 
the average climate it is best to plaster over furring. This 
leaves a moisture-resisting space between the plaster and the 
wall. If the furring is of wood and is nailed horizontally, it 
acts as a fire stop as well. This is not very practical, however. 



Wood or metal furring is generally nailed into laths laid in 
horizontal joints about every seventh course or into plugs or 
nailing blocks built into the wall. Such blocks are also used 
as a nailing base for trim, etc. The furring is sometimes 
nailed to mortar joints or dry joints left for this purpose. 
Such joints are not dependable, however. Split furring tile 
3 or 4 in. thick^ which are scored so that they can be split in 
half, are sometimes used (see Fig. 14). The tile is set without 

Fig. 138.~Nailing blocks. 

mortar on the back of the ribs to avoid solid contact with the 
wall and anchored at every second course by driving ten- 
penny nails into the mortar joints of the wall over every third 
tile and bending the head of the nail down over the tile. 
Tile provides a good surface upon which to plaster. Porous 
brick may be laid in place of nailing blocks as the furring may 
be nailed directly to them. Special metal lath is made which, 
due to its ribbed construction in itself, constitutes furring. 


34. Vaulted Walls.— A cavity or vaulted wall is excellent 
construction for small buildings. Two 4-in. tiers separated 
by an air space of 2 in. and held together by metal wall ties 
are sometimes used. Although the ties may rust, this is still 
a reliable form of construction where superimposed loads are 
not great. Flemish bond headers are sometimes used for 
bonding of metal ties, the header coming flush with the face 

Fio. 139. — Vaulted wall with metal wall ties. 

of the wall and recessed on the inner face of the wall, the recess 
being filled with mortar. Furring is generally unnecessary 
with vaulted construction. 

35. Veneered Walls.— In many cases, it is possible to 
materially improve an old frame property by veneering it 
with a shell of 4 in. of brickwork. The brickwork undoubtedly 
adds to the life of the house and '^paints'' it with an enduring 
surface which does not have to be renewed. Old frame houses 
were generally built more sturdily, with larger timbers than 



in frame houses of today, and they with their foundations 
can often be rehed upon to support the veneering. 

36, It is a great mistake, however, to construct new build- 
ings of brick veneer on frame. One of the great advantages of 
brick construction is the permanence and fire resistiveness of 
its walls — qualities lacking in brick veneer. Upon a frail 
support of shrinking 1^^- by 3^^-in. studs is placed the heavy 
dutynot only of supporting the dead and live loads of the house, 
but also of adding to it a weight of several tons of brickwork 

Fig. 140. — A sham front on a wood building, deadly dangt^rous to firemen if 
the building burns, and deceptive to possible purchasers and occupants. 

built so that its stability is negligible. Especially when a 
wind is blowing the resulting racking and straining is a tax 
on the strength of the framework. A heavy wind may rip the 
brick veneering off entirely. In a wall of sound construction 
the entire wall should act as a unit in bearing loads and resist- 
ing stresses. 

37. A fire starting in a veneered house burns not only the 
inside of the house, but the wood part of the outside walls; and 
the collapse of the brick shell upon the ruins is almost certain. 
With the brick veneer house the lower insurance rate of the 
real brick house is forfeited. 


38. Brick veneer costs more than a solid or Ideal brick wall 
in any part of the country. Especially since the advent of the 
Ideal wall, there are no good reasons for using this thoroughly 
unsound type of construction, which is both a deception and a 

39. Filling Putlog Holes. — Putlog holes should be cleaned 
out before the mortar has set hard. The brick should then be 
wet and more mortar than is required to fill the joints should 
be plastered oh to all of the exposed surfaces. The brick to 
be inserted should be cut to a wedge shape on the top and the 
bottom so that it may be wedged into the mortar. It should 
be hammered Jiome so that the mortar will be forced out all 
about the joints. The jointing should be matched to that of 
the wall about it, whether good or b^d. 

40. Laying Second-hand Brick.^— In laying second-hand 
brick the best brick should be selected for the face of the wall. 



Smoke or cheniicals upon the face 
of the brick wall, unless removed, 
stain any application of whitewash, 
paint, or plaster. Second-hand brick 
are mostly used for backing and 
other unexposed work. 

41. Garden Walls. — Garden walls 
should be approximately 8 in. thick 
and, for the average wall, should be 
reinforced every 10 ft. by pilasters 
about 12 in. thick. The lower the 
wall, the longer the distance that 
may be left between pilasters ; and the 
higher the wall, the larger the pilasters and the nearer they 
should be spaced. A curve or a bend in the wall will reinforce 
it as effectually as a pilaster. The wall needs no footing where 
the supporting earth is sufficiently firm, but it should be 
extended below the frost line. It may have a coping of tile, 
cement, stone, or headers set in rich cement. It is good 
practice to lay an absolutely watertight coping upon a gar- 
den wall, with a drip on each side, to lessen the possibility of 



Fig. 141. — Capping for garden 



42. In the case of a wall dividing the same property into 
two or more parts, a wall 4 in. in thickness may be built, as 
shown in Fig. 142, the curves in the plan of the wall giving it the 
necessary stability. The wall shown, 4 in. thick and about 
8 ft. high, has been standing over a century. It produces a 
variety of shady and sunny surfaces. 

Fig. 142.^ — Beautiful curved garden wall 4 in. thick. 

43. Very artistic and durable steps may be laid with brick, 
the treads being at least 12 in. wide with a slope of approxi- 
mately K ill- P^^ ^^^^' Full-length headers laid either flat 
or on end should always be used for the front of the tread. 
The joints, which should be filled with a rich cement mortar 
should be finished with a "thumb" joint, which is a joint thor- 
oughly rubbed with a steel jointing tool. The ends of the 







CONCRETE poundj^ioi 

8 litCKl PAVl N G t Al D FLAT OH Z" OF SAN r>p 
OR 3" or i:8 CONCR.ETE 

Fig, 143. — Steps laid with brick on edge. 


't^KK RI5Et^S 

i^^=^OFTGEAO 5H00LD 

H£"tSMtMlMt;M W)DTH 

ouTaiOE oTPPa 


Fig. 144. — Steps laid with brick flat. 


threads should be kept flush with risers and all treads should 
be laid on a concrete base. 

44. Gate Posts. — Twelve-by-twelve inch gate posts may be 
built in the form of solid or hollow piers. They should be 
started below the frost line and laid in rich cement mortar. 
If the posts are built hollow, gates, fences, ornamental lamps, 
etc. should be anchored entirely through the posts by long 
bolts. For posts carrying heavy gates, solid construction 
should be used and the bolts anchored in the posts by washers, 
or by splitting the ends of the straps and^ turning one up and 
one down, or placing a vertical piece of steel within the pier 
and bolting through it. 

45. Pavements. — Brick are frequently used for pavements 
and walks. Hard-burned common brick or paving brick are 
used for this purpose. For basement paving and garden walks 
the brick are frequently laid upon a well-drained bed of sand or 
cinders rolled until it is level and hard. The brick are laid 
either flat or on edge and grouted by pouring a 1:3 cement 
mixture into the joints, the surface being wiped clean before 
the cement has set. The grout is sometimes forced into the 
joints by the use of an old broom. For an inexpensive job, 
such as a garden walk, the joints are often fillecTwith a mixture 
of sand and salt, there being just enough salt in the mixture to 
prevent the growth of w-eeds between the brick. If a per- 
manent job is desired on ground that is damp and soft, a 1:8 
concrete foundation should be laid with the fcrick on top. 
When paving streets, the brick are always laid on edge, either 
over a hard-rolled sand or over a cinder surface or a concrete 
foundation, the joints being grouted with cement or preferably 
filled with asphalt. An expansion joint about' every 15 ft., 
which may be filled with sand or asphalt, is desirable. 

46. Panels. — The use of specially designed brick, terra 
cotta, and wall tile, of common or face brick laid in decorative 
patterns, of combinations of cement surfaces and brick 
patterns, of stone, of half timbering, and of cast-cement 
ornamentation is common in decorative paneling. A drawing 
of the panel is of course provided according to which the 
bricklayer must work. It is sometimes the practice to lay 


previously a decorative brick or tile design horizontally upon a 
form, filling the joints with mortar, and after the latter has 
set, place the panel as a unit. 

47. Miscellaneous Decoration,— To achieve artistic effects 
on the face of the wall, sections of stone, tile, and varicolored 


Fig. 145. — Elevations showing two arrangements for ornamental string or 

sailing course. 

brick arranged in patterns are commonly used. A marked 
pole is frequently of great assistance in laying brick to a speci- 
fied design as it serves as a check and guide. 

48. Belt, String, and Sailing Courses. — A course of brick, 
stone, tile, or terra cotta projecting from a wall is called a 

Fig. 146. — A brick cornice. 

string or sailing course. It is sometimes used for decorative 
purposes, to break the uniformity of a large expanse of wall. 
A similar course flush with the wall is called a belt course. 



49. Dentil Course. — Brick laid parallel to the face at the 
wall alternating in and out is sometimes used to form a dentil 

50. Saw-tooth Course. — A course laid at 45 deg. with the 
face of the wall is a saw-tooth course. 

Fig. 147. — Sawtooth course. 

51. Corbel.— Where courses of brick in the wall are projected 
beyond the normal face of a wall or pier to form a self support- 
ing projection, this is called a ''corbeF' and the operation 
of forming a corbel is referred to in the trade as ''corbeling." 
The deeper the brick are imbedded in the wall, the greater the 
load they will carry. Projections should be formed of headers. 
A section of corbeling should never be greater than twice the 
thickness of the wall itself, and no projecting course should 
extend more than 2 in. beyond the brick below it. If the pro- 
jection is 4 in. or more, a series of steps will be formed. Cor- 


beling is used to support roof gutters, chimneys, for fire stops, 
cornices, ornamentation, and for many other purposes. 

52. CorbeUng should be laid in line by the bottom edge of 
the brick. Corbeling should be well tied down or bonded and 
backed up every course to prevent accidents. 

53. Interior Finish. — Brick may be made to serve most satis- 
factorily as an interior finish in many buildings. In public 

Fig. 148. — Brick sewer being constructed by tunnelling method. 

of centering. 

Note type 

buildings, offices, and apartment hallways, pleasing and artistic 
effects may often be obtained by careful selection of brick, 
bond, and joints and by the employment of panels of brick 
in attractive designs. For factory construction, brick forms 
an excellent surface for the application of whitewash and 


54. Stucco. — Brick, is an excellent base for stucco, due 
to the fact that it will bond readily with it and does not shrink. 
When a brick wall is to be covered with stucco, hard-burned 



cull brick is sometimes used for economy. It should always 
be remembered that, contrary to general belief, stucco is of 
little value in keeping out moisture. Joints should be left 
rough, and the bricks wet before the stucco is applied. 

55. Septic Tanks, Sewers and Manholes. — Brick is well 
adapted for the construction of septic tanks, sewers, and man- 
holes. The ability of brick to resist the corrosive action of 

Fig. 149. — Egg shaped sewer under construction. 

sewage and of sewer gases makes it particularly suitable for 
these purposes. The brick should be laid in rich cement 

56. Protecting Limestone. — The surface of limestone which 
is to come in contact with brickwork laid in mortar containing 
Portland cement should be coated with an impervious liquid 
backing compound to prevent the Portland cement from 
staining it. Several such backing compounds are on the 


market. The stone itself is laid either in lime mortar or in 
stainless cement mortar. 

57. Cleaning the Wall. — All exposed brick should be 
scrubbed soon after completion with water and not more than 
5 per cent by volume muriatic acid, or about 1 pt. to 4 gal. 
of water. A stronger solution may injure the wall. After- 
wards, scrub thoroughly with clean water to remove the acid. 



1. Definition. — This is the name given to a new type of 
brickwork. Using standard ])rick, this new development 
produces a substantial and well-insulated wall of any thickness 
from 8 in. up. There is no patent or royalty on this 

Fig. 150. — An Ideal all-rolok school. 

2. Advantages. — The Ideal wall has the great advantage of 
a considerable saving in both materials and labor, combining 
the advantages of the solid-brick and hollow-unit types of 
wall at a lower cost than either. 

3. Two Types of Ideal Wall.— In the Ideal all-rolok wall 
all the brick are laid on edge. 

4. In the Ideal rolok-bak wall the brick in the outer 4-in. 
course are laid on their flat bed, so that the wall has the usual 



brick appearance; the backing brick being on edge. Header 
courses may be run at every third or every sixth courses and 
any bond may be used. 

5. With the Ideal rolok-bak wall, each header which extends 
from the flat outer course to the backing of brick on edge 
must have a small filling piece placed over it to make the 
brick on edge course line on top. 



Fig. 151. — Building an Ideal all-rolok house, 

6. It is not necessary for the bricklayer to cut a special 
piece for this filler. ' Brick chips lying on the scaffold can be 
used for this purpose, well slushed with mortar. 

7. Interruption of Mortar Joint. — Examination of the plates 
will show that the Ideal wall has a positive break in the mortar 
joint in the direction of the thickness of the wall. 

8. In a wall above grade it is almost impossible under 
conditions existing in actual practice, for a well-burned 
header to carry moisture along its entire length by capillary 
attraction. Moisture can, under severe conditions, be con- 
ducted along a mortar joint either of cement or of lime mortar; 
hence the importance of interrupting the joint. 








>^IR ^ACCS,7HIS aiv«5 TDIPLC' 

■ON- PLATE- NO-£- 

Plate VIII. 







ISJfe BPtC K, ftS 5Q- FOOTOF WAtL • 



sec PLATe N04- 



Ml^ bOICK PftR 6Q FTOrwAU. 


ouraDt OF WALL 

Plate IX. 



Plate X. 




»l R.*C-t V«fTI£»H 



• MEADtJ» EVERY' 3i»-CQURSE ■ • ■ lO% 


•MEADeRe EVERY-feffl-CCWRfie ■ ■ lO'-t 


am WALuKA/ 

•.jTJtft^W-&ALT«N*fl* " 


lit ADtCy- frVtHY ■ 6K.COUBJt- 
©AjfEMfiNT' WALL- iz'/t-mfmcK- 
' Pia^- ^TCtLY ■ WA L L ■ a IK- TH ICK," 

L- HA/- TWO- 
""•VEHTIUTE-P- Alfc/SACtv^. 

■PIAN ■ /»^>*1H i /TttttKtL 0*r tMtl 

■njw- /nswiNiBitT./ TAWMa PiArtJ*-,/Twia«« 

Plate XI. 












■ S--nou>K- OAK WAiX 





-Mm i 

Plate XII. 


9. The 8-in. Ideal wall has one break in the mortar joint 
and the 12-in. wall has two. 

10. Ventilated Air Space. — To further safeguard the inside 
surface, a slight steady circulation of air in the cavity dries 
out any small amount of moisture that might reach the portion 
of the header within the hollow space. 

11. The 8-in. wall has one ventilated space, the 12-in. 
wall has two. There is, moreover, no material in direct contact 
through the 12-in. wall from front to back, 

12. Brick for the Ideal Wall. — No special sizes or shapes of 
brick are required for the Ideal wall. Standard size brick, 
2M by 3% by 8 in. either face or common, are used. 

13. Greater speed of construction is possible when a non- 
impervious brick is used for Ideal- wall construction. The 
use of shale or similar hard impervious brick slows down the 
work where the brick are laid on edge. The use of non- 
impervious brick is also advisable for the reason that such 
brick make the most weather-resistive wall in Ideal con- 
struction. It will readily be seen that during a very heavy 
and long continued downpour of driving rain an absolutely 
impervious header might conduct a slight amount of moisture 
along its surface toward the inner face of the wall, whereas a 
header of non-impervious brick would absorb this moisture, 
which would be dried out by the slight steady circulation of 
air within the hollow space. 

14. Omission of Furring. — From many parts of the United 
States users report that plaster applied directly to the inside 
brick surface of properly built Ideal walls — without the use of 
furring — has proved satisfactory, and that with walls so con- 
structed buildings are warm, dry, and comfortable. To 
obtain this result there must be also reasonably good mortar 
and workmanship, and where such are used it is the belief of 
the author, based on a record of satisfactory performance, 
that furring may be safely . omitted with the 8-in. Ideal wall 
and the plaster applied directly to the inside brick surface; 
excepting in those parts of the United States which have long 
continued periods of severely cold weather, such as northern 
Michigan, the Dakotas, and Montana, m which localities the 



S-in. wall should be furred or the 12-in. unfurred Ideal wall 
used instead. The brick in all cases should be selected as 
recommended in paragraph 13. 

15. Ideal Construction, for What Use Adapted. — Ideal 
construction is adapted for the following uses: 

a. Foundations and walls of the superstructure of all 

Fig. 152. — Ideal all-rolok wall. - 

h. Load-bearing walls wherever the hollow unit type of wall 
is now employed or allowed. 

c. Spandrel, curtain, and partition walls. 

16. For fire, division, and party walls only solid brickwork 
should be considered, according to the best engineering 

17. Dr. A. H. Stang, of the U. S. Bureau of Standards, 
recently stated that '^Compressive tests under central loading 
of 8-in. walls, both Ideal and solid, showed that they had 
equal strength whether lime, lime cement, or cement mortar 
was used. Under central loading, 8-in. walls laid with 



cement mortar were 24 per cent stronger than if laid with 
lime cement niortar, and 84 per cent stronger than if lime 
mortar had been used.'' 

18. The strength of the Ideal rolok-bak wall, while less than 
that of the all-rolok wall, closely approaches the strength 
of the solid wall also. 

Fig. 153, — Bay windows or otiior ornamental features present no si)eeial 
difficulty in Ideal construction. 

19. Appearance of Ideal All-rolok Wall. — The Ideal all- 
rolok wall is laid in Flemish bond. With any brick it has a 
distinctive appearance, even when the rough or wire-cut 
surface of the stretchers is exposed in combination with the 
smooth end of the headers. 


20. Thickness of Ideal Walls. — For residence construction, 
Ideal walls need be no thicker than required for walls of soUd 

21. Flexibility in Thickness of 12>^-in. Wall.— The exact 
thickness of the 123-^-in, wall may be varied considerably to 
suit any special condition. It may be made from 11J':4 to 
13% in. thick. 

22. Use of Bats. — The usual proportion of bats may be 
used in the Ideal wall. An occasional stretcher on edge in 
the backing may be replaced by three small bats, by a three- 
quarter brick and a small bat, or by two Bats half a brick long. 
In the 12>^-in. all-rolok wall, shown on Plate No. IX, the bats 
or the three-quarter brick may be placed entirely on the inside 
web, and the inside and outside face built entirely of whole 

23. Bond of Ideal All-rolok Wall.— In the8-in. Ideal aU-rolok 
wall (Plate VIII) and the 12M4n. Ideal all-rolok wall (Plate 
VIII) the wall is bonded entirely through at every course by 
headers spaced 10% in. on center. In the 12H-in. Ideal all- 
rolok wall, shown on Plate IX, the center web is bonded to 
either the inner or outer web at every course. Although the 
123>^^-in. Ideal all-rolok wall, shown on Plate fX, requires one 
brick more per square foot of area than that on Plate VIII, it 
is a cheaper wall to construct, there being no bats to place 
that will show on the outside face. The wall, shown on Plate 
IX, is not so well bonded on the center web as the other type, 
but it is amply strong for all ordinary purposes. 

24. Bond of AU-stretcher Courses 123.^ -in. Ideal All-rolok 
Wall. — For basement walls below grade, alternate courses on 
both sides of the 123.^-in. wall, shown on Plate VIII, may 
consist entirely of stretchers. For similar 123-^-in. walls above 
grade, with one side only exposed, alternate courses on the back 
of the wall only may consist entirely of stretchers, the bond 
being preserved on the face by the use of bats (Fig. 154). 

25. It is important that the all-stretcher courses on the 
unexposed face break joint, as shown in Fig. 154. At every 
third stretcher it is seen that the difference in the unit of length 
will cause the vertical joints to coincide. By breaking the 



joints of the stretchers, no more than three vertical joints will 
coincide, as shown. Such coinciding of vertical joints does not 
weaken the wall but rather strengthens it. 




^L UL 

II • II 1 II II II ^ 

1 ^r 

^L L 



— ^1 — f- 


1 ^L 



II II 1 II II •- 

1 III ill 1 II' 

II i II 

ni rni — ^i — 

1 II - 

1 \-~~\ ^n ^r 


Fig. 154. — Unexposed side 12j^^ in. ideal all-rolok walL 

26. Exposed Bond, Ideal Rolok-bak Walls. — Any bond 
may be used with the Ideal rolok-bak wall. With common 

Fig. 155. — A 12-in. rolok-bak wall. 

bond, Flemish header courses are recommended, these con- 
sisting of headers and stretchers placed alternately. 



27. With Flemish bond the exposed headers in each third or 
sixth course only should be through headers, the remainder 
being bats. 

28. With EngHsh bond or English cross-bond it is evident that 
through headers must occur at every fourth or sixth course, 
instead of every third or sixth course as with other bonds. 
Where headers every fourth course are preferred, the arrange- 
ment, shown in Fig. 156 should be used. 

29. Header Courses as Joist Support, Ideal All-rolok Wall. 
In the Ideal all-rolok wall the joists max be supported on a 
full-header course, this method having the advantage that the 
headers form a fire stop at the story line. 


jc>gLji _ib<:i: ± 




fftsEs- Sir 


II — II II ir 

!i — m mr 
I ii~ 





FlG. 156. 

30. Where the joists are supported on an offset in the wall 
(see typical construction at first floor level, Plate XI), the 
joints in the header course should be slushed full. 

31. Where the wall is 8 in. thick above and below, the joists 
(see typical construction at second floor level, Plate X), 
the vertical joints between headers should be open in the center 
to help in securing a circulation of air and to break the through 
mortar joint at this point. 

32. The all-header course may be a feature of the architec- 
tural design, and made to have an attractive appearance. 
If preferred, however, some of the vertical joints in this 



course may be blind joints, as shown on Plate X, and the 
header course can thus be made to have the appearance of 
alternate headers and stretchers, or all stretchers. 

33. Exposed and Concealed Joist Support, Ideal Rolok-bak 
WaU. — On Plate X is shown the use of an all-header course as 
joist support. As in the case of the Ideal all-rolok wall, 
this course may be made an attractive feature of the design, 
with headers exposed. Headers may be placed in and out 
alternately, a band of three or four courses of headers intro- 
duced or other appropriate treatment employed. 



\>^ I^COffriNUOUS 

Fig. 157. — Concealed joint support forming fire stop. Ideal rolok-bak wall. 

34. With the Ideal rolok-bak wall the all-header course is 
not, however, necessary to obtain a fire stop at the floor line. 
As shown in Fig. 157, a fiat stretcher can be laid on the inside 
face of the wall at any point desired, to serve as a joist support 
and fire stop. The vertical joint should be left open as shown 
in order not to prevent the slow flow of air circulation. 

35. Joist Anchors.— The usual type of joist anchor may be 
used with either Ideal all-rolok or Ideal rolok-bak walls, as 
shown in Fig. 157. 

36. Window and Door Frames. — Stock window and door 
frames can be used in both types of Ideal walls. 


37. It is possible to keep the face of the trim flush with 
the plaster with the Ideal all-rolok wall if desired, and thus 
produce a charming and unusual effect at little or no extra 

38. By making the brick opening a little wider and higher, 
and setting out the frame, a stock double-hung window used 
in the Ideal rolok-bak wall can be made to preserve the usual 
relation of the back of the frame being flush with the finished 
plaster. In this case, a wind stop is nailed to the back of the 
frame. This detail has much historic precedent. 

39. Where the usual outside window reveal is preserved 
with the Ideal rolok-bak wall, a special backhand will be 
required when a stock frame is used. 

40. Supports over Openings. — In the plates, the inner and 
outer web are shown supported on steel angles but any of the 
standard methods may be employed- Openings may be 
arched, or a combination of an arch for the outside course 
and a wood lintel inside with relieving arch over, may be used. 

41. Fire Stopping Window and Door Frames. — As shown on 
the plates, effectual fire stopping of all openings consists of 
brick chips slushed in as the wall goes up. This fire stopping 
need not be more than l}^i iii- oi" 2 in. thick (see isometric 
drawing, Plate XII). 

42. Nailing Blocks.^One-by-four or two-by-four nailing 
blocks may be built in Ideal walls at any point desired as the 
work progresses, to form a nailing base for the attachment of 

43. Mortar and Joints for Ideal Walls. — Portland cement 
lime mortar should be used below grade; lime mortar may be 
used above grade. 

44. All mortar joints in Ideal walls should be filled. The 
mason must take care to avoid dropping more mortar than 
can be avoided inside the wall cavity, in order not to defeat 
the purpose of the wall by affording contact with the inner 
and outer webs even at this point. 

45. The bricklayer should consult " Brick — How to Build and 
Estimate" for more information on Ideal wall construction. 


1, Chimneys. — Although the brickwork in chimneys is 
frequently concealed from view, it is essential that this 
brickwork be thoroughly and conscientiously laid. A care- 
lessly built flue; with joints not properly filled, might permit 
the escape of hot gases that would ignite inflammable material 
in the vicinity of the chimney, with the consequent destruction 
of the building. 

2. The simplest form of chimney construction consists of a 
4-in. wall inclosmg a flue lining of burned clay laid in sections 

^ DOTTED unes Indicate 






•FLOE ^ 


Fig. 158. — Plan showing bonding in chimney. 

with joints full of mortar. Not more than two flues should be 
in the same chimney space. Where there are more than two 
flues each third flue should be separated by a ''withe'' or 4-in. 
brick partition. Flue linings should always be placed first 
and the brickwork built around it. Thoroughly fill all joints, 
including the space between the lining and the brickwork. 
Never build the brickwork first and drop the lining in after- 
wards. If the brickwork is 8 in. or more in thickness, the 
interior of the flue may be plastered with rich cement mortar 
instead of using tile. The plastered surface, being rougher, 



offers more resistance to the draft than the smoother surface 
of the flue Hning, however, and is Ukely to crack and fall off. 
In larger stacks, the hottest portion is sometimes lined with 
fire brick. Plastering the interior of a flue built with brick- 
work only 4 in. thick is very dangerous. If the plastering 
should fall off such a waU, there would only remain 4 in. of 
brickwork to protect the interior of the house. The expansion 
and contraction of the flue might to some extent disrupt 
the mortar between the bricks. Many fires actually have been 
caused by such construction. Especially to be condemned is 
the practice of building a flue of one thickness of brick laid on 
edge, or a total thickness of brickwork of only 2}i in. Such 
a flue is dangerous whether or not it has clay flue lining. 

3. Flue linings should start at least a foot below the first 
chimney opening, and be carried the entire height of the chim- 
ney and project several inches beyond the top in order to 
produce a good draft. The brickwork should be topped with 
a sharply sloping cap of cement or stone with the tile lining 
terminating 2 or 3 in. above. This will cause the air currents 
to take an upward turn, thus giving maximum draft. The 
chimney should be a foot or more higher than the highest 
section of the roof about it. There should be no connection 
between two or more flues in the same chimney, or smoke from 
one flue may pass through' the opening and under certain con- 
ditions be blown down the adjoining flue and out into the 
room. To obtain the best draft, flues should be laid ver- 
tically without offsets; if offsets are necessary, their slope 
should never be greater than 30 deg. from the chimney proper, 
or eddy currents and the collection of soot will result. Great 
care should be taken to cut flue lining miters accurately and 
to fill all joints with mortar. An airtight chimney with no 
unnecessary openings will give the best draft. No rough 
edges or sharp corners should be left, as they will catch soot 
and in time may close up the flue. Chimney pots are sometimes 
added to the top of the chimney for decorative purposes. 

4. The smaller and softer flue linings may be cut with a 
chisel and hammer more easily if placed on end and filled 
with sand. For larger and harder flue linings there is less 


danger of breakage if they are stood on end, and the inside 
as well as the outside surfaces are chipped off by a downward 
blow of a bricklayer's hammer until the sides are thin enough 
to break off easily at the point desired. Many prefer the 
use of sand in all cases. 

5. Chimneys should be supported by foundations, which 
are often built hollow below the lowest fireplace or flue con- 
nection so as. to form an ash or soot pit, a clean-out door 
being built in at an appropriate height. Chimneys with little 
projection are sometimes supported upon corbeling. All 
wood construction should be kept clear of the chimney by at 
least 2 in. Bo not frame any timber in a chimney wall. 

6. A good mortar mixture for fireplaces consists of two parts 
of cement, one of lime, and three of^sand. The brickwork of 
a free-standing chimney exposed to the weather should be 
laid in rich cement mortar. In building flues with offsets, 
some device should be used to keep the falling mortar and brick 
collecting at these points. Openings at these places are some- 
times left to be bricked up later, a board being inserted in the 
opening and so sloped that the mortar will fall out of the 
chimney as it hits it. A bag filled with shavings is sometimes 
pulled up the chimney as the work progresses, catching all 
falling mortar. 

7. The architect's drawings and specifications usually 
define just how flues and chimneys must be constructed. 
Their design must always be in accordance with local building 
ordinances. Boiler manufacturers will always give the size 
and height of flue required for the proper draft for boilers 
they manufacture. The American Society of Heating and 
Ventilating Engineers also issues data on flues and an excellent 
ordinance covering in detail the construction of chimneys may 
be had free of charge upon application to the National Board 
of Fire Underwriters, 76 William Street, New York City. 

8. Large stacks for industrial purposes are constructed 
either square or round in plan. Circular chimneys require 
fewer brick for the same effective flue area and, as heated air 
travels upward in a spiral motion, are more efficient. In 
constructing large stacks the material hoist and scaffolding 


are generally inside the stack. Outside scaffolding is some- 
times used, especially for ornamental brickwork. All joints 
should be shoved full of mortar. Large chimneys are 
usually designed and their construction supervised by compe- 
tent engineers. 

9. Fireplaces. — The open fireplace is one of the oldest 
devices for heating the home. Even in steam-heated dwellings 
the fireplace, because of the pleasant associations attached to 
it, often finds a place. It may be made most artistic through 
careful design, workmanship, and selection of brick. The 
fireplace forms the center about which the decorative scheme 
of a room is built. The opening of the fireplace should be 
carefully proportioned. Tables giving correct combinations 
of width, height, and depth are available (see *' Brick— How to 

Build and Estimate'')- 

10. The opening is spanned by an arch or a steel Untel. 
All forms of arches are used to meet varying requirements. 
An entire course of the brick used for facing over the arch is 
often laid out without mortar before the fireplace is built so 
as to make the width come exactly right, preventing the 
cutting of the brick to irregular lengths. 

11. The hearth, both front and back, may be laid in the 
same brick that is used for the mantel but tile are frequently 
used. In ordinary construction with wood joists the front 
hearth is supported by a trimmer arch laid upon a centei 
extending from a corbel to a joist header. If the use of a 
corbel would cause a projection to show on the ceiling of tk 
room below, the skewback may be made by setting in twc 
courses not less than 1 in. deep. The lower the spring lim 
of the trimmer arch the better; there is certain to be some 
shrinkage of the wooden joists. The space between the toi 
of the arch and the hearth should be filled with concrete 
An ash dump is generally built into the back of the hearth 

12. The back and sides of the fireplace are' sometime; 
laid in fire brick, although the same brick used for the mante 
may be employed. In order that the fireplace may thro\' 
the maximum of heat into the room'^the first few courses o 
the back may be vertical but from there on the work shouL 


slope or curve in toward the front of the fireplace. This 
causes the heat to radiate directly from the heated brickwork 
into the room and throws the throat of the fireplace forward, 
making a smoke shelf, the latter preventing down drafts. 
The narrowing of the throat increases the air velocity at this 
point and produces the desired draft. A metal damper should 
be inserted at the throat. Some excellent metal throats and 
dampers made in one piece are on the market. These auto- 
matically assure the proper forming of the throat. Above the 
smoke shelf the opening is gradually reduced in size by 
corbeling to meet the flue, and this is called "gathering.'' 
Gatherings should be plastered smooth to prevent soot from 
accumulating' The brickwork should be at least 8 in. thick 
up to the point where it joins the flue lining. If a fireplace 
projects only a short distance from" the main wall, it may be 
supported by corbeling out from the wall. Generally, how- 
ever, a wall to* support the fireplace should be built up from 
a proper footing. The space between the main wall and 
supporting wall of the fireplace may be left hollow to serve as 
an ash pit. 

13. The chimney breast is the section of the chimney 
above the mantel. To provide a more pleasing design, the 
breast is often furred out beyond the real masonry to preserve 
the same width and projection as the fireplace below. The 
designing of fireplace and mantel affords great scope for the 
talent of the architect, whose design may call for the use of 
brick, stone, tile or wood in combination, or some masonry 
material exclusively- Brick mantels are designed with every 

i variety of bond and special arrangement of brick to give the 
' effect desired. 

14. In constructing a fireplace, the rough brickwork only 
1 is first built until after the plastering is finished, in order to 

keep the brickwork free from plaster stains and other possible 
injury while the building is being erected. 


1. Arch. — An arch is a mechanical arrangement of building 
materials arranged in the form of a curve, which preserves a 
given form when resisting pressure and enables it, supported by 
piers or abutments, to carry weights and resist pressure. 

2. Lintel. — A lintel is a horizontal member spanning an 
opening. Lintels supporting brickwork may be of steel, stone, 
reinforced brickwork, reinforced concrete, etc. 

3. Soffit. — An under surface. 

4. Uses. — Arches and lintels may be used over windows, 
doors, and all other openings in a wall or between piers or 
other supports. Arches are also constructed to resist side and 
upward pressure. 

5. Abutment. — The supporting surface from which an arch 

6. Skewback. — An inclined surface froiir which an arch 

7. Extrados or Back.^rThe exterior or convex curve forming 
the line of the arch farthest from the center. The term is 
opposed to intrados, or concave side. 

8. Intrados. — The concave curve of an arch, the side nearest 
to the center. The term is opposed to extrados, or convex side. 

9. Crown. — In architecture, the uppermost member of a 
cornice. In the bricklaying trade, however, the highest 
portion of an arch is frequently called the '^ crown." 

10. Key. — The stone or brick placed in the center of an 

11. Springers.— The stones or bricks in an arch adjacent to 
the abutment. The lowest stone of a gable is sometimes called 
a springer. 

12. Spring Line or Spring. — The line or point at which the 
arch begins. 



13. Span. — The distance between supports. Applied to a 
beam, girder, arch, truss, etc. 

14. Rise, — The distance through which anything rises, 
such as the greatest distance between a line drawn between the 
spring lines of an arch and its intrados ; the measurement being 
taken at right angles to the line. 

15. Jamb. — The lining of a door, window, or other aperture. 
The jamb of a door or window outside the frame is termed 
the *^ reveal.^'" 

16. Haunch.^ — A point about midway between the crown 
and the spring line is known as the ^'haunch.'' 

17. Spandrel. — The space between an arch or curved brace 
and the horizontal ^'label,'^ beam, etc. over the same. In a 
steel or reinforced concrete framed building in which the 
windows occupy the major portion of the horizontal distance 
between piers, the section of the wall between the floor line and 
the sill is often*called the ^'spandrel.'' 

18. Reveal. — In a masonry wall the exposed masonry 
between the face of the wall and the frame set in an opening in 
the wall is called the "reveal.'' 

19. Radius. — Of an arch is the distance measured in a 
straight line from the intrados to the center of the circle of 
which the arch forms a part. 

20. Gaged Arch. — An arch in which the bricks are carefully 
cut or rubbed to the proper shape so that the radial and hori- 
zontal mortar joints will be of an even width. 

21. Rough-axed Arch. — An arch constructed of brick 
roughly cut to shape by the trowel, scutch, or the cutting end 
of the brick hammer. 

22. Plain Brick Arch. — This is constructed of ordinary brick 
without any cutting or gaging. The mortar joints in these 
arches are necessarily wedge-shaped. 

23. Laying Out or Centering an Arch. — An arch is constructed 
on a temporary support or center, which is left in position 
until the mortar has set. The center is usually constructed 
of wood, and is built and placed by the carpenter. 

24. The correct curve of the arch must be known before 
the center can be constructed. The radius, rise, location 



of centers of radius, etc. of simple arches are generally placed 
upon the working drawings in feet and inches by the architect, 
in addition to the working drawings showing such arches to 
scale. More complicated arches, such as three-center, five- 
center, elliptical, etc. arches, are drawn to scale upon the 
elevations, and in addition larger scale drawings are generally 
furnished and sometimes full-size drawings are made. All 
these must be carefully followed. Simple curves are struck 

Fig. 159.— Laying out segmental arch. 

upon a suitable piece of lumber laid on the floor -with a piece of 
string looped over a nail driven at the correct point and a 
pencil at the other end. If the string is tied tightly to the 
nail, it will wind up on the nail as the curve is struck and 
decrease the radius. Tie the string as closely to the point of 
the pencil as possible to avoid a wavy line. A beam compass is 
much more accurate than the nail and string method generally 
used. Where a full-size detail showing the curve of an arch 
is furnished, this should be pasted upon a piece of lumber, and 



the curve carefully followed with a saw. This is used as a 
template. A semi-circular arch is struck with a radius equal 
to one-half of the span, the circle being struck from the center 
of the span; the radius corresponding to the rise of the arch. 
25. To lay out a segmental arch with the aid of a compass, 
the following procedure should be followed (Fig. 159). 

a. Bisect the line AC at D, At D erect a perpendicular 
line marking upon it the rise B, 

b. Set the compass to a distance of less than one-half the 

Fig. 160. — Apparatus for drawing the curve of a segmental arch. 

c. Strike two arcs' JK and GH, with the same radius from 
centers A and B. Repeat on opposite side. 

d. Through the intersections E and F draw a line ELM 
extending it far enough to intersect a line drawn through the 
corresponding arc intersections on the other side of the center. 

e. The point is the center from which the arch is struck, 
the radius being OA or OB. 

26. A practical method to obtain the correct curve for 
a segmental arch when the required rise is known is as follows: 

27. Let ABhe the span, C being the rise. Drive two nails at 
A and B leaving the heads projecting. Take two light wooden 



strips RR and place them as shown, one against A, the other 
against B, arranged so that their intersection is at C. Nail 
the strips at the intersection and add other pieces S and X7, 

Fig. 161. — A flat gauged arch, 

naiUng all together. Then keeping the edges of the triangle 
against A and B, swing the triangle around, holding a pencil 
at C, Which will then trace the required curve. 

Fig. 162. — A gauged flat arch with camber. 

28. French, Jack, or Flat Arch.— In a gaged French or 
''jack" arch, the radial joints are of uniform width for their 
entire length. This is accomplished by having the brick 
rubbed or cut to wedge shape with horizontal surfaces at the 
bottom and top of each brick or by the use of specially made 



brick. A more inexpensive type of jack arch may be con- 
structed in which the brick are not rubbed to wedge shape but 








Fig. 163. 

are rubbed at the extrados and soffit only. This makes the 
horizontal joints between the ends of the brick come at right 




















Fig. 164. — Various methods of determining angle of skewbacks. 



angles to the radius upon which the brick are laid and the 
radial joints will of necessity be wider at the top than at the 
bottom, the mortar joints making up the difference. A jack 
archj although theoretically a true arch, in practice is weak 
and should be supported on steel lintels for all openings 
exceeding 2 ft. in width. Inasmuch as a perfectly horizontal 
soffit, especially a wide one, appears to the eye to sag in the 
middle, a slight camber may be formed in the soffit to correct 
this (Fig. 122). 

29. Three methods for determining the angle at which 
the skewbacks may be cut are: a. Use the span as a radius 

Fig. 165. — Segmental aTrches on a near wall. Note also squint quoins, 

pigeonhole type. 

and strike intersecting arc through the springing points, and 
draw lines through the springing points from the center. 
6. Cut at a 60 deg. angle with the span. c. Erect a perpen- 
dicular upon a horizontal line drawn through the springing 
points at a point as many inches back of the springing point 
as there are feet to the span; this perpendicular intersecting 
the extrados. 

30. Segmental Arch. — The segmental arch is one of the 
strongest forms of arch. The abutment must, of course, have 



sufficient weight and mass to resist the side thrust. The rise 
given a segmental arch will depend partly upon the load and 
partly upon the design of the building. It is common practice 
to make the rise one-eighth of the span. One inch rise for each 
foot of span is another rough rule. Segmental arches may be 
constructed of alternate headers and stretchers where appear- 
ance is a factor, or of courses or ''rings'' of rowlocks. Unless 
special brick are used or the brick are gaged or rough axed, 
the mortar joints will of necessity be wider at the extrados 
than at the intrados. 

Fig. IGG. — Semi-circular arches. 


31. Semi-circular or Roman Arch. — The semi-circular arch 
is one of the strongest forms of arch. It may be constructed 
of one or a number of courses or ''rings'' of rowlocks, or of 
stretchers, or a combination of both. The brick may be gaged 
or rough axed, or constructed of plain brick, in which case 
there will be a difference in the width of the joint at extrados 
and intrados. 

32. Three-center Arch. — To construct the curve (Fig. 168) 
for a three-center arch, let AC be the span and B the required 
rise. The radius of the side arcs AF' : CF is also given. Draw 
BD perpendicular to AC. Lay off AG, CI, and BH, each equal 
to the required radius of the side arcs. Join G and Hj bisect- 



ing the line GH by a perpendicular. The intersection of the 
perpendicular with BD gives the center for the central portion 
of the curve, the exact length of which is obtained by joining 
D and G, also D and 7, and extending the lines. From centers 

Fig. 167, — A deep semi- circular arch .surh us this is frequently called a 

"barrel" arch. 

G and I describe the arcs AF and CF respectively. From 
center D, with radius DF describe the arc F^F, 

33. Very often the architect will correct with a free-hand 
curve the slight apparent flatness about the points F' and F, 

Fig. 168. — Method of laying out curve of three centered arch. 

34. Elliptical Arch.— Special care is necessary in forming an 
elliptical arch correctly to obtain a good curve. A poor curve 
is very noticeable with an arch of this type and is far too f re- 



quently seen. An ellipse is the section of a cone cut by a 
plane passing obliquely through it. 

35. There are many methods of describing an ellipse. Two 
very practical methods are given here. In each case the span 
and rise are given. 


Fig. 169. — Practical method of describing an elliptical arch. 

Method L Draw the chord AC, bisect it at B and draw the 
line DBj the distance DB equaling the rise. Project the 
line some distance below the chord. Take a strip of wood S 
and mark on it the distance ah equal toAB and dh equal to DB. 

Fig. 170. — Elliptical arch described with string and pencil. 

Begin the curve by placing the point 6 at A, with aV on the 
line of the chord. Move the straightedge, keeping d on the 
long axis and a on the short axis. Make dots frequently on 
the line D. Through them draw the ellipse (Fig. 169). 



Method 2. With radius equal to AB and from jD as a center 
describe an arc cutting AC at E and F, Drive a nail at E 
another at F and a third at D with the heads projecting. Loop 
a cord around the three nails. Pull out the nail at D. Then 
place a pencil point inside the loop and starting at A or C 
draw the curve^ keeping the loop tight (Fig. 170). 

36. Pointed Arch. — The pointed arch, commonly referred 
to by the craftsman as a ''Gothic'' arch, is mostly used on 

'Fig, 171.— All elliplical arch. 

Gothic buildings. This arch is struck from two or more 
centers and is pointed at the center. 

37. Supporting or Relieving Arch.^ — ^Over openings 3 ft. 
wide or less, such as door and window openings, a wood lintel 
generally supports the backing. The brickwork will practi- 
cally support itself after the mortar sets and will not fall even 
if the lintel decays or burns. For openings greater than 3 ft. 
in width, a wood Hntel is placed as for narrower openings, on 
which is built brickwork shaped to form a permanent center 



Fig. 172. — Arch with slight point at center. 


for a segmental arch called a relieving arch, constructed of one 
or more rings of rowlock headers according to the span and 
load to be carried. The span of the relieving arch must not 
be less than the length of the wood lintel. When carrying very 
heavy loads the brick should be ''laced/' that is, bonded for 
several courses by rowlock headers at intervals about the 
arch. The brick on the outer tier are frequently supported by 
steel lintels, as described in the following paragraph (Fig. 163). 

38. Lintels, — A steel lintel of a size proportionate to the load 
to be carried" is frequently used to carry loads over openings. 
The lintel should have at least a 4-in. bearing surface on each 
end. For a Soffit over a window or door the lintel generally 
supports the outside portion of the brickwork the depth of the 
reveal. A steel lintel is generally uSed to carry fiat arches and 
soldier courses over openings. The soldier course, to give the 
best effect, should not be wider than the span. All parts 
of the metal that will be concealed in the masonry should be 
thoroughly painted with red lead or graphite before the lintels 
are placed. The entire thickness of the wall is sometimes 
supported upon a steel lintel. 

39. Preliminary experiments upon reinforced brick lintels 
have been highly encouraging. By the use of reinforced 
brickwork the entire reveal including the head of the opening 
will show a brick surface; thus doing away with the rather 
unsightly appearance of a steel lintel. 

40. Methods of Constructing an Arch.— In constructing 
arches, wooden centers are made and set by the carpenters. 
It is good practice, especially with wide arches, to support the 
centers upon wedges which are gradually driven out when the 
centers are removed. This allows the arch to assume the load 
gradually. ''Striking'' the center refers to the operation of 
transferring the weight previously supported by the center to 
the arch. The centering is not struck until the mortar has 
set. In constructing an arch, start at the skewback and work 
toward the center, the key or middle brick being the last one 
laid. The job should be measured before starting in order to 
determine how many brick will be necessary and where the key 
will come. This enables the bricklayer to so space his mortar 


joints that it should be unnecessary to do any additional cut- 
ting or splitting to the key brick. Sometimes the bricklayer 
places the brick dry on the center to make sure that the joints 
will work out right. It is a proof of bad and careless work- 
manship to have to split the brick in order to complete the arch. 
A true arch must have an odd number of courses in order to 
bring the key at the center. An arch with an even number of 
brick is known to the trade as a ''she.'' 

41. Use Full Bed Joints. — Arches must be laid so that the 
bed joints are full of mortar. Otherwise^ the work may bulge 
at the center. When laying an arch, use a straightedge fre- 
quently so as to detect any tendency of the arch to bulge. 

42. Selection of Arches and Lintels.— For ordinary work, 
for arches over windows and doors with a 4-in. reveal, a seg- 
mental arch the thickness of the wall is probably the lowest in 
cost. A soldier course set upon a steel lintel is very popular; 
it costs little more than the segmental arch and makes a better 
looking job in many cases. The outer tier is frequently 
carried up directly from the steel lintel without a soldier course. 
A stone lintel (frequently used for decorative effect) should be 
supported by a steel lintel if the stone has not sufficient cross- 
sectional area to carry the load. To give the Best effect, stone 
lintels should blend or contrast in a pleasing way with the 
brickwork of the building,' and should be in proportion to the 
size of the opening and to the size of the building itself. 
An arch generally carries that portion of the wall above which 
would be contained within an equilateral triangle having for 
its base the span of the arch, except in cases where the level of 
the floor joists or other load supporting member comes close to 
the arch. The better the fit of the brick used in an arch and the 
more uniform the width of the joint, the stronger the arch will 
be, and the better its appearance. 


1. Definitioh.— After a job has been completed, there some- 
thnes appears upon the face .of the wall a white film which 
dries in irregular patches, spoiling the appearance of the 
brickwork. This is known as efflorescence or '* whitewash." 

2. Causes,— When masonry contains soluble salts, and these 
salts are dissolved by moisture or water (such as the water used 
in wetting the brick and in mixing the mortar) ; the solution 
may be carried to the face of the wall, when the water will 
evaporate and iSave the salt on the face of the wall in the form 
of crystals. Any type of masonry is liable to show efflores- 
cence. The salts may be present in the wall for a variety of 

a. When common salt or calcium chloride is used in winter 
construction to lower the freezing point of the mortar, efflores- 
cence is very Hkely to occur. A bad case of efflorescence on 
stonework has been known to result from melting out with 
salt some lewis holes that were full of ice; the efflorescence 
making its appearance several months afterwards. ] fji 

6. A leak from a pipe containing liquid or moisture leaking 
from some other source may wet masonry which originally 
contained no soluble salts, the water from the leak carrying | 

with it enough of this material to cause efflorescence. f 

c. Water seeping into a basement wall in very wet j 
ground may carry soluble salts from the soil and deposit them 

in crystals; or porous masonry just above grade may show 
efflorescence caused by the masonry drawing up salt-laden 

moisture from the ground by capillary attraction, the moisture | 

drying out on the face and leaving the salt crystals. I 

d. Lime or cement used in the mortar may contain soluble i- 
impurities. ]: 

189 ? 


e. If the mortar sand is not clean and contains loam or 
other impurities, it may also contain soluble salts. 

/. The mortar may be mixed with dirty water containing 
soluble impurities. 

g. The brick may contain soluble impurities which with 
some clays occasionally result from the chemical breaking down 
of the original rock. These impurities are sometimes made 
non-soluble by the addition of barium carbonate to the cky. 
This is an expensive process, however. 

3. Methods of Removing Efflorescence. — Efflorescence gen- 
erally disappears if simply left a few weeks or months to the 
weather. A newly built wall soon dries out and unless the 
masonry is again soaked with water the efflorescence will not 
reappear. Efflorescence may be removed with a scrubbing 
brush and water. Some masons add a little muriatic acid to 
the water— not more than 1 pt. to 4 gal. of water. Wash the 
muriatic acid off thoroughly, scrubbing the wall with clean 
water. It is a mistake to assume that waterproofing a wall 
will stop efflorescence, unless the wall is thoroughly dry 
throughout when the waterproofing is applied and unless no 
moisture can reach the masonry on any side other than that 
waterproofed. * 



The prospect of actually laying brick— of having the trowel 
in his own hand — is one compelling reason why many boys 
are attracted to this ancient craft. Do not dull the boy's 
enthusiasm bj making him do theoretical work first. Give 
him brick, trowel, and mortar at once and let him ''go to it." 
Make the theory of the trade incidental to the job itself but a 
definite part of it. This will maintain interest from the start. 

The following Trade Problems have been compiled for the 
purpose of aiding the instructor in starting the boy upon prac- 
tical work at once. By having the pupil read the numbered 
paragraphs in the book listed under each problem and by 
keeping a record of his work on a job card similar to the one 
shown on the next page, a complete history of the apprentice's 
progress will be available. 

It is realized that changes in, and additions to, the problems 
listed will be both desirable and necessary and it is not expected 
that the instructor will attempt to assign all of the problems in 
the same order in which they are Hsted in this book. The 
suggestions offered should, however, form a basis for the organ- 
ization of an apprentice training group, and the elimination or 
extension of parts of the content is a matter in which each 
instructor should use his own judgment. 







Trade Test Grade 

Questions answered 

Type jobs completed 







Fair I Good 



For convenience, this book has been divided into Units, such as Mortar, Jointing, et^. 

All of these Units will be found Hsted at the back of the book together wth the 

Questions which should be answered, and the Type Jobs which sho\rid be completed under 

^^A card should be filled out by the apprentice for each Unit and punched by the teacher, 
thus recording the quality of each type job completed and the correctness of the answer 
to each question. 



Problem 1: 

Mix a batch of lime mortaiv using lump lime, stacking the mortar and 
tempering it. 

Read paragraphs : 

Unit III— 1 through 23, 39 through 40, 45 through 46. 

Unit IV— 20 through 27. 
Answer questions : 

Unit III— 1 through 14, 29, 33, 34. 

Unit IV— 19, 20 through 25, 30. 
Perform type jobs : 

Unit III— 1 through 4, 6. 

Instructor's note: Enter grades upon the job cards for the Questions 
answered and Type Jobs completed under each Unit referred to. The 
numbered Questions and Type Jobs under each Unit will be found in 
detail at the back of the book. It is, of course, impossible to give every 
boy the job of minting mortar at the beginning of his work. In all of these 
jobs the work is so arranged that the instructor may give the work at the 
most opportune time and enter his grades upon the job cards at the time 
the work is done. By this device the instructor may have a different 
group of boys mix the mortar each time that a new batch is needed. 
Eventually, each boy will have had the experience of slaking lime, and 
mixing mortar. For ordinary practice work in laying brick where the 
job is to be torn down, a slow-setting mortar should be used. Each boy 
should be thoroughly informed, however, before leaving the school, 
in regard to methods of mixing the standard mortars used in the trade, 
although he will probably never be called upon to do the mixing himself. 
In some cases the mortar may be used for permanent jobs to be done 
about the school building. In cases where the work must be constantly 
torn down, once the pupil has had the practice of mixing mortar, a group 
demonstration may bS substituted for actual experience in the mixing 
of cement mortars, etc. 

Problem 2: 

Mix a batch of lime mortar, using hydrated lime. 
Read paragraph : 

Unit III— 41. 
Answer questions : 

Unit III— 15, 22, 30. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit III— 5. 


Problem 3 : 

Mix a batch of 1:1:6 cement lime mortar. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit III~24 through 28. 
Unit III— 42 through 44. 
Answer questions : 

Unit III-— 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 31, 32. 
Perform type jobs : 
Unit III— 8. 
Problem 4 : 

Mix a batch of 1 :3 cement mortar, replacing 10 per cent of the cement 
with hydrated lime or lime putty. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit III— 29 through 38, 51 through 55. 
Answer questions: 

Unit III— 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 36. 
Perform type jobs. 
Unit III— 9. 
Problem 5: 

Lay a section of an 8-in. wall, 2 ft. high, in running bond, with metal 
ties, using common brick and lime mortar, with a rough-cut joint., by the 
stringing mortar method, toothing the ends. 
Read paragraphs : 
Unit I — ^1 through 4. 

Unit IV— 1 through 5, 7, 22, 27, 28, 29, 30. 
Unit V-A— 1 through 8, 11a. 
Unit VII~1 through 3, 6. 
Unit IX— 1 through 14, 28. 
Unit X-A— 10. 
Answer questions: 
Unit I— 1, 2. 

Unit IV— 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 26, 28. 
Unit V— 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9. 
Unit VII— 1, 2, 3, 6. 

Unit IX— 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 19, 20, 21. 
Unit X— 1. 
Perform type jobs : 
Unit V— 1. 
Unit VII— 3. 

Unit IX— 1, 2, 3, 4. ' 

Unit X— 1. 
Problem 6: 

Lay a corner of an 8-in. wall with a struck joint by the pick and dip 
method, using a clipped running bond, making a shoved joint and 
racking the ends. 


Read paragraphs: 

Unit 1—5 through 8. 

Unit IV— 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 49. 

Unit V-A— 115 and c, 12. 

Unit VII— 4. 

Unit IX— 15, 17, 33, 34. 

Unit X-A— 12. 
Answer questions: 

Unit 1—4, 5, 6. 

Unit IV— 6, 8, 9, 10, 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 43. 

Unit V— io, 11. , 

Unit VII— 4. 

Unit IX— 10, 12, 27. 

Unit X— 2. 
Perform type jobs : 

Unit V— 2. 

Unit VII— 1. 

Unit IX— 5, 6. 

Unit X— 2. 

Problem 7: 

Raise a corner on the 8-in. wall of problem 6, assuming that the wall to 
be constructed is a story high, using common or American bond, with a 
weathered joint, giving the correct roll to the brick, and plumbing the 
corner carefully. 
Read paragraphs: 
Unit IV— 20, 31. 
Unit V-A— 13. 
Unit VII— 5. 

Unit IX— 23 through 26, 29, through 32. 
Answer questions: 
Unit IV— 29. 
Unit V— 12. 
Unit VII— 5. 

Unit IX— 18, 22, 24, 25, 26. 
Perform type jobs : 
Unit V— 3. 
Unit VII— 2. 
Unit IX— 10, 11, 12, 13. 

Problem 8: 

Lay a comer of an 8-in. wall, 2 ft. high, in English bond with a flush- 
cut joint, with a course of rowlock headers, capping the wall, using black 

Read paragraphs : 

Unit 1—5, 15, through 18. 
Unit III~47 through 50. 



Unit V-A— 8 through 10, 14. 

Unit VI— 1, 2. 

Unit VII— 7. 

Unit IX— 35, 36. 
Answer questions : 

Unit 1—3, 13. 
' Unit III— 35. 

Unit V— 7, 13. 

Unit VI— 1, 2. 

Unit VII— 7. 

Unit IX— 28, 29. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit III— 7. 

Unit V— 4. 

Unit VI— 1. 

Unit VII— 4. 

Unit IX— 14, 15, 16. 

Problem 9: 

Lay a comer of an 8-in. wall, 2 ft. high, with a raked joint, in English 
cross bond, with a course of rowlock stretchers across the bottom, and a 
saw-tooth course for the second course of brick. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit V-A— 15. 

Unit VI— 3. 

Unit VII— 8. 

Unit X-A— 50. 
Answer questions: 

Unit V— 14. 

Unit VI— 3, 7. - * 

Unit VII— 8. 
Perform type jobs: ^ 

Unit VI— 2, 6. 

Unit VII— 5. 

Problem 10: 

Lay a corner of an 8-in. wall, 3 ft. high, in garden wall bond, with a 
stripped joint, with a soldier course across the bottom of the wall, and a 
12-in, bonded course across the top. 
Kead paragraphs: 

Unit V-A— 21. 

Unit VI— 4, 5. 

Unit VII— 9. 
Answer questions: 

Unit V— 15. 

Unit VI-^, 6, 


Unit VII— 9. 

Perform type jobs; 
Unit V— 6. 
Unit VI— 3, 5. 
Unit VII~6. 

Problem 11 : 

Lay a corner of an 8-in. wall, 2 ft. high, in Dutch cross bond, with a V 
joint, using enameled brick for the face of the wall. 
Read paragraphs: 

Unit 1—9. 

Unit IV— 13. 

Unit V-A— 10, 15. 

Unit VII— 10. 

Unit X-A— ^3. 
Answer questions : 

Unit 1—7. 

Unit IV— 13. 

Unit V— 16. 

Unit VII— 10.» 

Unit X— 39. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit V— 7. 

Unit VII— 7. 

Problem 12: 

Lay a corner of a 12-in. wall, 3 ft. high, with a beaded joint, in double 
Flemish bond, blocking the ends, using impervious brick and laying a 
dentil course next to the top course of brick. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit 1—12. 

Unit IV— 23, 32. 

Unit V-A— 16, 17. 

Unit IX— 16, 41. • 

Unit X-A— 13, 49. 
Answer questions : 

Unit 1—9, 10. 

Unit V— 17. 

Unit VI— 8. 

Unit IX— 31. 

Unit X— 3. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit V— 8. 

Unit VI— 7. 

Unit IX— 19. 

Unit X— 3. 


Problem 13: 

Lay a section of a 12-in. wall, 2 ft. high, in single Flemish bond, with a 
sailing course running across the center, backing the wall with open joints. 
Read paragraphs : 
Unit V-A— 16, 17. 
Unit IX— 20. 
Unit X-A-— 48. 
Answer questions: 
Unit V— 18. 
Unit IX— 15. 
Unit X— 7. 
Perform type jobs: ^ 

Unit V— 9. 
Unit IX— 9. 
Unit X— 31. 

Problem 14; 

Lay a section of a 12-in. wall, 3 ft. high, facing the wall with double- 
stretcher Flemish bond, backing the wall with common bond and corbel- 
ing out the top of the wall for a distance of 10 in. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit V-A— 18, 19. 

Unit X-A— 51, 52, 57. 
Answer questions: 

Unit X— 8. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit V— 10. 

Unit X— 5. 

Problem 15 : 

Lay a section of an 8-in. curved wall, 2 ft. high, with a radius of 6 ft. 
using Flemish spiral bond. ^ 

Read paragraph: 
Unit V-A— 20. 
Answer questions : 

Unit V— 19. 
Perform type jobs : 
Unit V— 11. 

Problem 16 : 

Lay a section of a garden walk in herringbone pattern (see Fig. 72). 
Read paragraphs: 

Unit V-A— 23. 

Unit X-A— 45. 
Answer questions: 

Unit V— 20. 

Unit X— 17. 


Perform type jobs: 

Unit V— 12. 
Problem 17: 
Lay a section of a garden walk in diagonal pattern. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit II— 7, 8, 9. 

Unit V-A— 24. 
Answer questions : 

Unit V— 21. 
Perform type jobs : 

Unit V— 13. 
Problem 18 : 

Remove efflorescence and tuck point an old wall. 
Read paragraphs: 

Unit VIII— 1, 2, 3. 

Unit XIII— 1, 2, 3. 
Answer questions: 

Unit VIII— 1, 2, 3. 

Unit XIII— 1^ 2, 3. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit VIII— 1, 2. 

Unit XIII— 1. 
Problem 19 : 

Lay a section of a 12-in. wall, 5 ft. high, backing it with hollow tile and 
laying a panel upon the face of the wall in block pattern, using surface 
tile for decorative inserts and capping the wall with a cornice of orna- 
mental terra cotta. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit II— 1, 2, 6, 10, 11, 12. 

Unit V-A— 25. 

Unit VI— 6, 7. 

Unit X-A— 46. 
Answer questions : 

Unit II— 1, 2, 3, 4. 

Unit V-A— 22, 23. 

Unit VI— 5. 

Unit X— 5. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit II— 1, 2, 3. 

Unit V— 14, 15. 

Unit VI^. 
Problem 20 : 

Lay a section of a 16-in. foundation, 3 ft. high, including the footing, 
with a grouted joint and with the outside of the wall moisture-proofed 
according to one of the methods described in the paragraphs referred to. 



Read paragraphs : 

Unit 11—13. 

Unit IX— 18, 
Answer questions: 

Unit IX— 13. 

Unit X— 25, 26, 31. 
Perform type jobs : 

Unit IX— 7. 

Unit X— 18, 23. M 

Problem 21 : " 

Lay a 16-in. wall in common bond 3 ft. high, using a slushed joint, 
inserting nailing blocks for a baseboard, leavings dry joint and inserting 
a lath as a nailing base for furring, and leaving a chase 8 in. wide by 
4 in. deep. 

Read paragraphs : 
Unit IX— 19, 21. 
Unit X-A— 20, 33. 
Answer questions : 
Unit IX—14, 16. 
Unit X— 4, 14. 
Perform type jobs : 
Unit IX— 8, 20. 
Unit X— 4, 11. 
Problem 22: 

Lay a fire wall with filled joints, changing from a 12-in. to an 8-in. wall, 
supporting anchored fire-cut joists. Beam fill between joists to level of 
underside of finished floor to form a fire stop. 
Read paragraphs : 
Unit IX— 22. 

Unit X-A— 8, 9, 19, 21 through 23, 30, 31. 
Answer questions: "* 

Unit IX— 17. 

Unit X— 29, 30, 34, 35, 38, 40. 
Perform type jobs: 
Unit X— 22. 

Problem 23 : 

Lay a section of a 12-in. wall, 2 ft. high, with fire brick in fire clay. 
Read paragraphs: 

Unit I— 10. 

Unit IX— 37 through 40. 
Answer questions: 

Unit 1—8. 

Unit IX— 30. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit IX— 17. 


Problem 24 : 

Lay a section of a 12-in. furnace wall, 2 ft. high, using silica brick with- 
out mortar. 

Read paragraphs: 
Unit I— 10. 
Unit IX— 38, 39. 
Answer questions : 
Unit 1—8. 
Unit IX— 32. 
Perform type jobs: 
Unit IX— 18. 
Problem 25 : 

Inclose a steel column in porous brick. 
Read paragraphs: 
Unit 1—14. 
Unit X-A— 18. 
Answer questions: 
Unit 1—12. 
Unit X— 37^ 
Perform type jobs : 
Unit X— 26. 
Problem 26 : 

Lay a corner of an 8-in. garden wall, the wall extending 4 ft. each way 
from the corner, with a 12 in. by 12-in. gate post at each end, one to be 
hollow and the other sohd. (Note that the corner acts in the same way 
as a pilaster to increase stability.) 
Read paragraphs: 
Unit IV— 19, 
Unit X-A— 6, 41, 42, 44. 
Answer questions : 
Unit IV— 18. 
Unit X— 18, 20, 27. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit X— 13, 15, 19, 20. 
Problem 27: 

Lay a section of an 8-in. wall in common bond about 3 ft. high with a 
pilaster 12 in. wide by 4 in. deep in the center of the wall and lay the 
wall with an obtuse external angle at one end. 
Read paragraphs; 
Unit V-A— 26. 
Unit X-A— 7. 
Answer questions: 
Unit X— 15, 28, 
Perform type jobs: 
Unit X— 12, 21. 


Problem 28 : 

Lay a comer of an Ideal wall four courses each in the following bonds: 
12-in. wall rolok-bak, 12-in. wall all-rolok type 1, 12-in. wall all-rolok 
type 2, 8-in. wall rolok-bak, and 8-in. all-rolok. 
Read paragraph : 

Unit X-A— 34. 

Unit X-B— 1 through 45. 
Answer questions : 

Unit X-— 21, 22. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit X— 16. 


Problem 29 : 

Veneer a section of a frame dwelling, nogging the space between the 

Read paragraphs : 

Unit X-A~32, 35 through 38. 

Answer questions : 

Unit X— 23, 24. 

Perform type jobs : 

Unit X— 17, 32. 

Problem 30: 

Lay a flight of three steps. 
Read paragraph: 

Unit X-A— 43. 
Answer questions : * 

Unit X— 19. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit X— 14. 

Problem 31: 

Lay a section of a manhole. - 

Read paragraph: 

Unit X-A— 55. 
Answer questions: 

Unit X— 33. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit X— 24. 

Problem 32: 

Lay a section of a fireproof brick arch floor. '^ 

Read paragraphs : 

Unit X-A— 17. 
Answer questions : 

Unit X— 36. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit X— 25. 


Problem 33: 

Add to the thickness and length of an existing 12-in. wall. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit IV— 12. 

Unit X-A— 11, 14 through 16, 39, 40. 
Answer questions: 

Unit IV— 12, 

Unit X— 41, 42, 43, 44. 
Perform type jobs : 

Unit X— 27, 28, 29. 

Problem 34 : 

Lay a section of an 8-in. wall bricking in a steel casement window, 
forming a brick sill and a plain jack arch over a steel lintel, the backing 
being supporte'3 on a second steel lintel. 
Read paragraphs: 

Unit IV— 33 through 38. 
Unit X-A— 24, 25, 27, 28. 

Unit XII— 1 through 23, 28 through 29, 38 through 42. 
Answer questions: 

Unit IV— 31, 32, 33, 34, 
Unit X— 9, 10, 12. 
Unit XII— 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 14, 15, 16. 
Perform type jobs: 
Unit X— 6, 7, 9. 
Unit XII— 2. 

Problem 35: 

Lay a section of a 12-in. wall, bricking in a wooden door frame and 
forming a brick sill and segmental arch over the frame, the latter to be 
properly caulked. 
Read paragraphs: 
Unit 1—13. 

Unit IV— 39 through 48. 
Unit IX— 29. 
Unit X-A— 26, 29. 
Unit XII— 20 through 27, 30. 
Answer questions: 
Unit I— 11. 

Unit IV— 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42. 
Unit IX— 23. 
Unit X— 11, 13. 
Unit XII— 6, 8. 
Perform type jobs: 
Unit X— 8, 10. 
Unit XII— 1, 3. 



Problem 36 : 

Lay a section of a 12-in. wall leaving an opening 3 ft., 6 in. wide and 4 
ft. high with a stone sill and a relieving arch, the face of the wall being 
supported by a steel lintel. 
Read paragraphs : 
Unit X-A— 56. 
Unit XII— 37 through 39. 
Answer questions : 

Unit XII— 13. 
Perform type jobs: 
Unit X— 33. 
Unit XII— 8. 

Problem 37: 
Lay a plain semi-circular arch. 
Read paragraphs: 

Unit XII— 22, 31. 
Answer questions : 

Unit XII— 9. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit XII— 4. 

Problem 38: 

Lay a three-center rough-axed arch. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit XII— 21, 32, 33. 
Answer questions: 

Unit XII— 10. 
Perform type jobs : , ' 

Unit XII— 5. 

Problem 39 : 
Lay an elliptical gaged arch with rubbed brick. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit XII— 20, 34 through 35. 
Answer questions : 

Unit XII— 11. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit XII— 6. 

Problem 40 : 

Lay a pointed, or Gothic, arch. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit XII— 36. 
Answer questions : 

Unit XII— 12. 


Perform type jobs: 
Unit XII— 7. 

Problem 41 : 

Construct a fireplace and chimney with an 8- by 8-in. flue lined with 
flue lining extending through from the floor below, the chimney rising to a 
height of 8 ft., the top to be capped with brick on edge capping. 
Read paragraphs: 

Unit XI— 1 through 14. 
Answer questions: 

Unit XI— 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 
Perform type jobs: 

Unit XI— 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 

Problem 42 : 

Lay an 8-in, hollow tile wall 6 ft. high for a building which is to be 
stuccoed, with a window opening 3 ft. wide, a terra cotta window sill, 
and a 3-in. tile partition meeting the outer wall 8 in. to the left of the 
window opening. 
Read paragraplis: 
Unit II— 3, 4. 
Unit X-A— 54. 
Answer questions: 

Unit II— 5. 
Perform type jobs: 
Unit II— 4, 5, 6. 

Problem 43 : 

Lay a section of a wall in "skintled" brickwork, C. B. M. A. effect 
No, 1 Figs. 80 and 81, using overburned brick. 
Read paragraphs: 

Unit V-B— 1 through 6. 
Answer questions: 

Unit V— 24. 
Perform type job : 
Unit V— 16. 

Problem 44: 

Lay a section of a wall in skintled brickwork C. B M. A, effect 
No. 5 Figs. 84 and 85. 
Read paragraphs : 

Unit V-B— 1 through 6. 
Answer questions: 

Unit V— 25. 
Perform type job: 
Unit V— 17. 


Problem 45 : . 

Lay a section of a wall in any one of the decorative patterns shown in 
illustration on pages 72 to 73, using brick of two colors. 
Read paragraphs : 
Unit V-A~22. 
Unit X-A— 47. 
Answer questions : 

Unit X— 6. 
Perform type jobs: 
Unit X— 30. 



Unit I 


Questions : - 

1. What are the standard dimensions of a brick? 

2. What is common brick? 

3. What is face brick? 

4. How is a pressed brick made? 

5. How is a jnolded brick made? 

6. What is the difference between a soft mud and a stiff mud^brick? 
7» What is a glazed brick? 

8. What are fire and silica brick? 

9. What is a paving brick? 

10. What is an impervious brick? 

11. What is a special brick? 

12. What is a porous brick? 

13. What considerations enter into the selection of brick? 

Unit II 

Questions : 

1. What is floor and wall tile? 

2. What is hollow tile? 

3. What is ornamental terra cotta? 

4. What are cement blocks? 

5. Is hollow tile a satisfactory base for stucco? Why? 

Type Jobs: 

1. Lay decorative floor and wall tile in a brick wall. 

2. Back a brick wall with hollow tile. 

3. Lay a terra cotta cornice. 

4. Lay an 8-in. tile wall. 

5. Lay a 3-in. tile partition. 

6. Set a terra cotta window sill and jamb piece. 



Unit III 


Questions : 

1. What is mortar? 

2. What are its uses? 

3. What considerations enter into the selection of mortar for a given 


4. What is the difference between the wa^^ in which lime mortar and 

cement mortar sets? 

5. What should be the consistency of mortar? 

6. Describe a mortar bed and a mortar box.. 

7. What tools and equipment are used for mixing mortar? 

8. Where should the mortar bed be located? 

9. What is the nature of lime mortar? 

10. For what purposes is lime mortar used? 

11. What do we mean by slaking lump lime? 

12. How should lime mortar be mixed? 

13. What is meant by aging? 

14. What is meant by tempering? 

15. What are the advantages of hydrated lime? 

16. What is the nature of cement lime mortar? 

17. What are its uses? 

18. What cement should be selected for mixing cement lime mortar? 

19. What is lime putty? 

20. How do we retemper cement lime mortar? * 

21. How is cement lime mortar usually proportioned? 

22. How should we mix hydyated lime? 

23. What is the nature of cement mortar? 

24. What are its uses? 

25. Why should we add lime putty? 

26. Describe the characteristics of various cements. 

27. How do we mix cement mortar? 

28. How do we retemper cement mortar? 

29. What is lump lime? 

30. What is hydrated lime? 

31. What is Portland cement? 

32. What is natural cement? 

33. What sand should be used for mixing mortar and why? 

34. What tests are there for good sand ? 

35. How do you color mortar? 

36. How may we mix mortar for cold-weather jobs? 

Type Jobs: 

1. Slake a batch of lump lime. 

2. Mix a batch of lime mortar. 


3. Stack a batch of lime mortar. 

4. Temper a batch of lime mortar. 

5. Mix a batch of lime mortar, using hydrated hme. 

6. Make two tests for sand. 

7. Color a batch of mortar, 

8. Mix a batch of 1:1:6 cement Ume mortar. 

9. Mix a batch of 1:3 cement mortar. 

Unit IV 

Questions : 

1. Describe the trowel. 

2. What is its use? 

3. How should we select a trowel? 

4. What is a brick trowel? 

5. What is a buttering trowel? 

6. What are pointing and striking tirowels? 

7. AVhat are fountain trowels? 

8. What is * brick chisel, or set? 

9. Describe a bricklayer's hammer. 

10. What is a scutch? 

11. What is a cold chisel? 

12. What is a star drill? 

13. Describe a jointer. 

14. Describe a tool bag. 

15. What is the square used for? 

16. What is the use of a pocket rule? 

17. Describe the two types of plumb rules. 

18. What is a straightedge and what are its uses? 

19. Describe the hod. 

20. What are the uses of a wheelbarrow? 

21. Describe the construction of a mortar board. 

22. Describe the construction of a mortar box. 

23. What type of screen may be used to best advantage? 

24. What is a mortar hoe? 

25. What type of shovel should be used? 

26. What are finger protectors? 

27. When should a mortar mixer be used? 

28. What is the line? 

29. What is a plumb bob? 

30. Is there more than one size of hod? Why? 

31. Describe a scaffold. 

32. What are the uses of trestles? 

33. What are scaffold squares? 

34. What are scaffold brackets? 



35. What is a putlog scaffold? 

36. How are the putlogs placed on the scaffold? 

37. What is meant by staying the scaffold? 

38. Describe a safe method of splicing a scaffold pole. 

39. What are outriggers? 

40. What is a suspended scaffold? 

41. What is a derrick? 

42. When can a material hoist be used most efficiently? 

43. How are batter boards used and how is a building laid out? 

Unit V, A and B 


Questions : 

1. What is bond? 

2. What should be considered in selecting a bond? 

3. What is a stretcher? 

4. What is a header? 

5. What are the uses of headers and stretchers? 

6. What do we mean by keeping the perpends or keeping the end 

joints plumb? 

7. Describe a bat and the different forms of closers, and state how 

they are used. 

8. Make a pencil sketch of stretcher or running bond. 

9. Describe the methods of tying stretcher bond t© the wall. 

10. Make a pencil sketch of the corner of a wall showing clipped bond, 

11. When is clipped bond used? 

12. Make a pencil sketch 6i the corner of a wall showing common, or 

American, bond. 

13. Make a pencil sketch of the corner of a wall showing Enghsh bond. 

14. Make a pencil sketch of the corner of a wall showing English 


15. Make a sketch of the corner of a wall showing garden wall bond. 

16. Make a sketch of the corner of a wall showing Dutch bond. 

17. Make a sketch of the corner of a wall showing Ffemish bond. 

18. What is the difference between single and double Flemish bond? 

19. Make a sketch of a portion of the face of a wall, showing Flemish 

spiral, or continuous, bond. 

20. Make a sketch showing the herringbone pattern. 

21. Make a sketch showing the diagonal pattern, 

22. Illustrate block, or diaper, bond. 

23. What is an insert? 

24. What is skintled brickwork? 

25. To what class of building are these effects best adapted? 


Type Jobs: 

1. Lay a stretcher or running bond with metal ties (8-in. wall). 

2. Lay a clipped bond (8-in. wall). 

3. Lay a corner in common or American bond (8-in, wall). 

4. Lay a corner in Enghsh bond (8-in. wall). 

5. Lay a corner in English cross-bond (8-in. wall), 

6. Lay a corner in garden wall bond (8-in. wall). 

7. Lay a corner in Dutch bond (8-in. wall). 

8. Lay a corner in double Flemish bond (12-in. wall). 

9. Lay a wall in single Flemish bond (12-in. wall). 

10. Lay a wall in double-stretcher Flemish bond (12-in, wall). 

11. Lay a section of a curved wall with a spiral bond (8-in. wall). 

12. Lay a section of a garden walk in herringbone pattern. 

13. Lay a section of a garden walk in diagonal pattern. 

14. Lay a section of block or diaper pattern. 

15. Lay an insert in a wall. 

16. Lay a section of a wall, using effect No. 1, Fig. 81 skintled 

brickwork using overburned brick. 

17. Lay a section of a wall, using effect No. 5, Fig. 85, in skintled 


Unit VI 

Questions : 

1. What is a rowlock? 

2. What is a rowlock header? tlj 

3. What is a rowlock stretcher? I 

4. What is a soldier jcourse? 

5. Make a sketch of a decorative panel. 

6. What is a bonded course? 

7. Make a sketch of a saw-tooth course. 

8. Make a sketch of a dentil course. 

Type Jobs: 

1. Lay a course of rowlock headers. 

2. Lay a course of rowlock stretchers. 

3. Lay a soldier course. 

4. Lay a panel. 

5. Lay a 12-in. bonded course. 

6. Lay a saw-tooth course. 

7. Lay a dentil course. 



Unit VII 

Questions : 

1. What is jointing? 

2. What should be considered in selecting a joint? 

3. What width of joint should be selected? 

4. What is a struck joint? 

5. What is a weathered joint? 

6. WTiat is a plain- or rough-cut joint. 

7. What is a flush-cut joint? 

8. What is a raked joint? 

9. What is a stripped joint? 

10. Describe a tooled joint. 

11. Describe a beaded joint. 

Type Jobs : 

1. Form a struck joint. 

2. Form a weather joint. 

3. Form a plain- or rough-cut joint. 

4. Form a flush-cut joint. 

5. Form a raked joint. 

6. Form a stripped joint. 

7. Form a V joint with a jointing tool. 

8. Form a beaded joint. 

Unit VIII . * 


Questions : 

1. What is pointing? 

2. What is tuck pointing? 

3. How should an existing wall be pointed? 
Type Jobs: 

1. Tuck point a section of wall. 

2, Point a section of an existing wall. 

Unit IX 

Questions : 

1. What should the apprentice bricklayer consider in studying th 

various methods of laying brick? 

2. How should the mortar board be used? 

3. How should the trowel be held? 

4. What should be considered in picking up mortar? 

5. How should mortar be spread? 


6. What should be considered in cutting off mortar? 

7. When and why should brick be wet? 

8. What should be considered in picking up brick? 

9. What should be considered in laying brick? 

10. Describe the pick and dip method of laying brick. 

11. Describe the stringing mortar method of laying brick. 

12. What is a shoved joint? 

13. What is a grouted joint? 

14. What is a slushed joint? 

15. What is -an open joint? 

16. What is a dry joint? 

17. What is a filled joint? 

18. WTiat do we mean by roll? 

19. What should be considered in setting the line? 

20. What do we mean by laying of the line? 

21. What do we mean by crowding the line? 

22. What do we mean by raising a comer lead? 

23. How should a story pole be used? 

24. What should the man working at the corner take into considera- 

tion in laying his brick? 

25. How important is sighting? 

26. How do we plumb a corner? 

27. Describe methods of cutting and clipping brick. 

28. Why should the wall be covered after quitting? 

29. What precautions should be taken to keep the wall clean? 

30. How is fire brick laid? 

31. How is impervious brick laid? 

32. Why is silica brick laid dry? 

Type Jobs : 

1. Prepare a mortar board and stack mortar upon it. 

2. W^et down brick. 

3. Set the line. 

4. Lay brick by stringing mortar method, 

5. Lay brick by pick and dip method. 

6. Form a shoved joint. 

7. Form a grouted joint. 

8. Form a slushed joint. 

9. Form an open joint. 

10. Lay a face tier with correct roll. 

11. Raise a corner lead. 

12. Sight the wall for plumbness. 

13. Plumb a corner. 

14. Cut a bat and a queen closer. 

15. Cover the wall. 

16. Keep the wall clean while under construction. 


17. Lay fire brick with fire clay. 

18. Lay silica brick dry. 

19. Lay impervious brick in a wall. 

20. Lay a dry-joint inserting lath. 

Unit X, A and B 


Questions : 

1. What is meant by toothing? 

2. What is meant by racking? 

3. What is meant by blocking? 

4. What are nailing blocks and how are they used? 

5. What is a panel? 

6. How may decorative effects be obtained by the use of brick? 

7. What is a belt string or sailing course? 

8. Describe methods of laying and backing up a corbel, stating why 

it should be well tied down. 

9. Describe methods of laying a window sill. 

10. What is a jamb? 

11. How should a door sill be laid? 

12. What methods are used for setting a door or window frame? 

13. What do we mean by caulking frames? 

14. What are chases? 

15. Make a sketch of methods of laying a brick wall at angles other 

than 90 deg. 

16. What should be considered in laying a brick- wall against the brick 

wall of another building? 

17. Describe methods of laying pavements. 

18. How would you build a garden wall? 

19. Describe methods of laying steps. 

20. How would you lay a gate post? 

21. What is a cavity or vaulted wall? 

22. Describe the Ideal wall. 

23. What is a veneered wall? 

24. What do you mean by nogging? 

25. What must be considered in laying a footing? 

26. What do we mean by underpinning? 

27. What is a pier? 

28. What is a pilaster? 

29. How are joists supported? 

30. What are anchors and how are they installed? 

31. How may we moisture proof a wall? 

32. What is stucco? 

33. Why are bricks suitable for septic tanks, manholes, and sewers? 

34. Describe methods of laying fire stops. 


35. What are party, fire, and division walls? 

36. Describe methods of laying a brick fireproof floor. 

37. How may brick be used to enclose steel columns? 

38. For fireproof construction, why are el-evator and stairway inclosures 

extended above the roof of the building? 

39. When may brick be used for interior finish? 

40. How should the thickness of a wall be determined? 

41. How may we add to the thickness of a wall? 

42. What should be considered in laying second-hand brick? 

43. What methods should be used in filhng a putlog hole? 

44. What methods should be used in joining new work to toothing? 

Type Jobs: 

1. Lay a section of a wall, toothing the ends. 

2. Lay a secFion of a wall, racking the ends. 

3. Lay a section of a wall, blocking the ends. 

4. Lay a section of a wall with nailing blocks for a base board. 

5. Corbel out a wall. 

6 Lay a brick window sill. 

7. Lay a jambr 

8. Lay a door sill. 

9. Set a door or a window frame. 

10. Caulk a door or a window frame. 

11. Lay a wall with a pipe chase. 

12. Lay a corner at an obtuse external angle. 

13. Lay a garden wall with a supporting angle. 

14. Lay a flight of steps. 

15. Lay a gate post. 

16. Lay a corner of a 12-in. Ideal all-rolok wall. 

17. Veneer a section of a frame dwelling. 

18. Lay a footing. 

19. Lay a solid pier. 

20. Lay a hollow pier. 

21. Lay a pilaster. 

22. Lay a section of a wall, changing from a 12-in. to an 8-in. wall and 

supporting joists, the joists to be fire-cut and anchored with a 
fire stop laid between them. 

23. Damp proof a section of a basement wall. 

24. Lay a section of a manhole. 

25. Lay a section of a fireproof floor. 

26. Inclose a steel column in brick. 

27. Add to the thickness of an existing wall, 

28. Fill a putlog hole. 

29. Join new work to toothing. 

30. Produce a decorative effect by the use of brick of different colors. 

31. Lay a belt, string, or sailing course. 




32. Fill in between the studs of a frame dwelling by nogging. 

33. Lay a stone window sill. 

Unit XI 


Questions : 

1. What factors should be taken into consideration in laying a 


2. What methods should be used to insure a good draft? 

3. What is the best method of cutting flue linings? 

4. How should a chimney be supported? 

5. What are good mortar mixtures for chimheys and fireplaces? 

6. What methods are used in laying large stacks for industrial 

purposes ? 

7. What is a fireplace? 

8. Name the parts of a fireplace. 

9. Describe methods of laying a fireplace. 

Type Jobs: 

1. Cut a flue lining. 

2. Lay a section of a chimney, inclosing two flue linings, 

3. Lay the back and sides of a fireplace. 

4. Lay a fireplace throat, inserting a metal damper. 

5. Lay a fireplace arch. 

6. Lay a fireplace mantel. 

7. Lay a fireplace hearth supported on a trimmer.* 

^ - Unit XII 

Questions : - 

1. What is an arch? 

2. What is a lintel? 

3. What are the uses of arches and lintels? 

4. Make a sketch of an arch, one end resting upon, a pier, the other 

end resting upon a wall abutment, and name all of the parts of 
the arch. 

5. What methods are used in laying out an arch? 

6. Lay out a gaged segmental arch of alternate headers and stretchers 

to scale, using a compass and rule. 

7. Make a pencil sketch of a jack, flat, or camber arch, showing the 

three methods of determining the cut of the skewback. 

8. Make a pencil sketch of a segmental arch constructed of rowlock 


9. Make a pencil sketch of a semi-circular, or Roman, arch. 


10. Lay out a three-center arch. 

11. Make a sketch of an elliptical arch. 

12. Make a sketch of a pointed arch. 

13. Make a sketch of a supporting or reheving areh. 

14. Why are steel lintels used? 

15. What methods are used in constructing an arch? 

16. Give reasons for the selection of arches and lintels for various types 

of jobs. 

Type Jobs: 

1. Lay out* a segmental arch, full size, and construct the centering 

for it. 

2. Lay a plain jack, fiat, or camber arch. 

3. Lay a segmental arch. 

4. Construct a center and lay a semi-circular, or Roman, arch. 

5. Lay a three-center arch. 

6. Lay an elliptical arch. 

7. Lay a pointed arch. 

8. Lay a supporting arch, using a steel lintel to support the face of the 

wall (1^-iii. wall). 

Unit XIII 

Questions : 

1. What is efflorescence? 

2. Name some of its causes. 

3. What remedies may be used? 

Type Jobs : 

1. Clean a wall upon which efflorescence has appeared. 


Acute squint quoins, 76 
American bond, 64 
Anchors, 134, 135 
Apprentice school, how to estab- 
lish, 1-8 , 
Arch, elliptical, 183 

flat, 178 

French, 178 

jack, 178 

pointed, 185 

relieving, 185 

segmental, 177, 178, 181 
laying out, 177, 178 

semicircular or Roman, 182 

three-center, 182 
Arches and lintels, 174-188 

definitions of terms, 174, 175 

selection of, 188 
Arches, construction of, 187 

laying out, 175-178 


Basket, block or diaper pattern 

bond, 75 
Bats and closers, definition of, 59 
Batter boards, 54 
Bed of brick, 15 
Belt course, 149 
Blocking, 131 
Bonds, 55-77 

American, 64 

basket, block or diaper pattern, 

clipped, 62 

common, 64 

Bonds, diagonal pattern, 75 
double-stretcher Flemish, 70 
Dutch cross, 67 
English, 66 

cross, 67 
Flemish, 68 

cross, 70 

spiral, 70 
fundamental, 60 
garden wall, 71 
herringbone pattern, 74 
pattern, 67, 68, 70-75 
running, 61 

header, 64 
stretcher, 61 
units of pattern, 71, 72 
Brick arch floor system, 133 
chisel, 39 
common, 16 
definition of, 15, 16 
description of varieties of, 16-21 
enamelled, 17 
end-cut, 16 
face, 16 
fire, 17 
paving, 19 
picking up, 108 
porous, 19 
pressed, 16 
. rough test for, 21 
salmon, 20 
sand-moulded, 16 
selection of, 19-20 
side-cut, 16 
silica, 17 
size of, 15, 17, 19 
soft mud, 16 
special, 19 




Brick, stiff mud, 16 

surfaces, names of, 15 

trowel, 37 

veneer, 143, 144 

waterstruck, 16 

wire-cut, 16 
Bricklayer's chisel, 38 

hammer, 39 
Brickmaking, history of, 8-13 
Buttering trowel, 38 

Calcium chloride in mortar, use 

of, 35 
Caulking frames, 139 
Cavity walls, 143 
Cement, natural, 33 

Portland, 33 
Chases for pipes, 133 
Chimney breast, 173 

construction, model ordinance 
for, 171 
Chimneys, 169 

and fireplaces, 169 to 173 
foundations for, 171 
industrial, 171 
mortar for, 171 
Chisel, brick, 39 

bricklayer's, 39 
Cleaning brickwork, 153 
Cleveland apprentice school, 2 
Clipped bond, 62 
Clipping brick, 116 
Cold-weather jobs, 34, 35, 36 
Colored mortar, 34 
Common bond, 64 

brick, definition of, 16 
Concrete blocks, 25 
Coordinator for apprentice schools, 

Corbelling, 150 
Corner lead, raising the, 115 
Corners, Dutch and English, 60 
in brickwork, acute and obtuse, 

Covering work at night, 119 
Cull face of brick, 15 
Cutting brick, 116 


Dampproofing, 123 

Dentil course, 150 

Derrick, 54 

Diagonal pattern bond, 75 

Double-stretcher Flemish bond, 70 

Drill, 39 

Dry joints, 112 

Dutch cross bond, 67 


Efflorescence, definition and causes, 
• removal of, 190 
Elliptical arch, 183 
Enamelled brick, 17 
End-cut brick, 16 
End of brick, 15 
English bond, 66 
cross bond, 67 
Establishing apprentice school, 
methods of, 1 to 8 

Face brick, definition of, 16 

of brick, 15 
Federal aid for apprentice schools, 

Filled joints, 112 
Finger protectors, 44 
Fire brick, 17 

laying, 119 

stopping, 139 

walls, 128 
Fireplaces, 172 
Fireproof ing, brick, 133 

hollow tile, 22 
Flat arch, 178 
Flemish bond, 68 

cross bond, 70 



Flemish spiral bond, 70 
Floor and wall tile, 24 

system, brick arch, 133 
hollow tile, 23 
Flue linings, 169, 170 

sizes, 171 
Flues, 169 
Flush-cut joints, 95 
Foot scaffolds, 48 
Footings, 121" 
Foundations, 121 
Fountain trowel, 38 
Four-inch brick walls, 141 
Frames, settisg of, 137, 138 
French arch, 178 
Furring, 23, 141 
Furrowing mortar bed, 107 

Garden wall bond, 71 
walls, 145, 146, 147 
Gate posts, brick, 148 
Grouted joints, 110 


Hammer, bricklayer's, 39 
Header, definition of, 55 
Heating brickwork materials, 36 
Herringbone pattern bond, 74 
History, brickmaking and brick- 
laying, 8-13 
Hods, 42 

"Hog" in brickwork, 113 
Hollow tile fireproofing, 22 

floor system, 23 

furring, 23 


Ideal wall, 154-168 
bonding of, 164 
brick for, 161 
joist support for, 166 

IdealVall, lintels for, 168 

mortar for, 168 

nailing blocks in, 168 

setting frames in, 167 

thickness required for, 164 

types of, 154 

uses of, 162 
Impervious brick, laying, 120 
Inclosures, stair and elevator, 133 

Jack arch, 178 
Jointer, 40 
Joints, dry, 112 

mied, 112 

flush-cut, 95 

grouted, 110 

open. 111 

plain-cut, 95 

raked, 96 

rough-cut, 95 

selection of, 92 

shoved, 110 

slushed. 111 

stripped, 97 

struck, 93 

weathered, 94 
Joints in brickwork, 92-98 
Joist supports, 134 


''Keeping the perpends," 58 

Laying brick, buttering method, 
economy of motions in, 101 
pick-and-dip method, 110 
stringing-mortar method, 109 

Lime, grades of, 32 

ground or pulverized, 32 
hydrated, 32 



Lime, lump, 32 
mortar, 27-30 
preparing for use, 30 
proportioning of, 29 
use of, 28 
Limestone, protection of, 152 
Line, the, 44 

laying to the, 114 
setting the J 113 
Lintels, 187 
Lump lime, 32 
slaking of, 28 


Material hoists, 54 
Mortar, 26-36 

definition of, 26 

lime, 27-30 

picking up, 103 

Portland cement, 30-32 

k cement-lime, 30 

retempering, 30, 31 

selection of, 26 

setting of, 26 

spreading, 105, 109 

uses of, 26 
Mortar bed, 27 
Mortar board, 42 

use of, 101 
Mortar box, 27, 43 
Mortar color, 34 
Mortar, hoe, 44 


Nailing blocks, 142 
Natural cement, 33 
Nogging, 141 


Obtuse squint quoins, 76 
Open joints. 111 
Outrigger scaffold, 52 

Panels in brickwork, 90, 148 
Party walls, 128 
Pattern bond units, 71, 72 
Pattern bonds, 67, 68, 70-75 
Pavements, brick, 148 
Paving brick, 19 
Paving tile, 24 
Picking up brick, 108 
Pier, definition, 128 
Pilaster, definition, 128 
Plain-cut joints, 95 
Plumb bob, 45 
Plumb rule, 40, 41 
Plumbing a corner, 116 
Pocket rule, 40 
Pointed arch, 185 
Pointing brickwork, 99 

trowel, 38 
Porous brick, 19 
Portland cement, 33 

cement-lime mortar, 30 
cement mortar, 30-32 
Pressed brick, 16 

Property line, l^ing brick to, 132 
Putlog holes, filling, 145 

scaffold, 49 


Quarry tile, 24 


Racking, 131 
Raked joints, 96 
Relieving arch, 185 
Re-pressed brick, 16 
Rod, 45 

Roll of brick, 112 
Roofing tile, 24 
Rough-cut joints, 95 
Rowlock brick, rowlock course, 90 
Running bond, 61 
header bond, 64 




Sailing course, 149 
Salmon brick, 20 
Salt in mortar, use of, 35 
Sand, 33 

moulded brick, 16 
Saw-tooth course, 150 
Scaffold brackets, 48 

squares, 47- 
Scaffolding, 46 to 53 
Screen for sand, 44 
Scutch, 39 
Segmental arch, 181 

laying out a, 177, 178 
Semicircular or Roman arch, 182 
Sewer work, 152 
Shoved joints, 110 
Shovel, 44 
Side-cut brick, 16 
Side of brick, 15 
Sighting of brickwork, 115 
Silica brick, 17 

laying, 119 
Sills, brick, 136, 137 
Skewbacks, determining angle of, 

Skintled brickwork, 78-89 
Slaking lime, 28 
Slushed joints, 111 
Soft mud brick, 16 
Soldier courses, 90 
Special brick, 19 
Spreading mortar, 105, 109 
Square, 40 
Squint quoins, 76 
Stiff mud brick, 16 
Straightedge, 41 
Stretcher bond, 61 

definition of, 55 
Striking trowel, 38 
String course, 149 
Stripped joints, 97 
Struck joints, 93 
Stucco on brick, 151 

Terra cotta, 25 

and tile, 22-25 
Thickness of existing wall, adding 

to, 131 
Three-center arch, 182 
Tile, definition of, 22 

and terra cotta, 22-25 
Tool bag, 40 

Tools and equipment, 37-54 
Toothing, 129 

filling a, 129 
Trestles, 46 
Trig, 45 
Trowels, 37, 38 
. -brick, 37 

buttering, 38 

fountain, 38 

pointing, 38 

right and wrong ways of hold- 
ing the, 102 

striking, 38 
Tuck pointing, 99 


Underpinning, 123 

Vaulted walls, 143 
Veneer, brick, 143, 144 


Wages of apprentices, 6 
Waters truck brick, 16 
Weathered joints, 94 
Wetting brick, 107 
Wheelbarrow, 42 
Winter construction, 34 
Wire-cut brick, 16 
Withes, 169